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A Compendium of the comparative grammar of the Indo-European, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin languages (Part II)

August Schleicher Herbert Bendall

A Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin languages (Part II)

August Schleicher Herbert Bendall

Alpha Editions

This edition published in 2020        ISBN : 9789354170492 (Hardback)   ISBN : 9789354174254 (Paperback)   

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

II.

A.

80.

MOKPHOLOGY.

BOOTS AND STEMS.

The form of the Indo-European word. All Indo-European words originally of one form

81.

Boot-formation. The different forms

of root; transposition of

.

.

164

Stem-formation. 1.

Stems from unmodified root

166

2.

Stems formed by means of suffixes Primary and secondary suffixes

167

Composition

168

3.

1.

166

The formation of derived verb-stems.

83. Derived verb-stems in general

;

distinction

verbs and derived- verbs 84.

161

vowel a in

roots 82.

.

Verb- stems in origl. Indo-European

..."

171 -ya- (-a-ya-}.

173

174

Sanskrit

Greek (verbs in -e, Latin (verbs in

between stem-

-oo>, -a&>)

-a-, -e-, -z-)

.

999U?

176 177

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

IV

PAGE

85.

Noun-stems used

as verb-stems,

without change. 180

Sanskrit

86.

Greek

180

Latin

183

Yerb-stems, formed by reduplicating the root and adding -sa- except in the present --. t

184

Sanskrit 2.

Those noun-stems most closely allied to verb-stems (participles

and

infinitives), etc.

The root without suffix

87. I.

the same time

Indo-European

185

Sanskrit (infinitive)

185

Greek

(infinitive of the

compound

88. II.

aorist)

186 187

Latin

Stems with suffix

-a-.

Indo-European

187

Sanskrit (infinitive)

187

Greek

189

Latin 88a. III.

189

Stems with suffix

--.

Indo-European

190

Sanskrit

190

Greek

191

Latin

191

88b. IY.

Stems with suffix

-u-.

191

Indo-European Sanskrit

191

Greek

191

Latin 89.

is at

noun-stem.

a

Y. 1.

192

Stems with suffix -ya- as a

primary

suffix

Indo-European

-ya-. .

193 193

Sanskrit (part, necessit.)

193

Greek

194

V

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

194

Latin 2. -ya- as a

secondary

195

suffix

Sanskrit (participia necessit. in -tavya-, -aniya-}

Greek

.

.

.

197

Latin

Note 90. VI.

2.

198

Part. nee. in -endo-

Stems with suffix

-va- (-van-}.

200

Indo-European

200

Sanskrit

91.

195 197

(part, in -reo-)

Greek

200

Latin

200

Stems with, suffix -ma-, and suffixes which have -ma- as their first element (-man-, -ma-na-,

VII.

-ma-nt-}.

Indo-European

203

Sanskrit (-ma-, -man-, -mant-, -min-}

203

Greek

(-ytto-,

-pov-, -pev-,

-fjuovrj-,

204

-fuv-, -/-tar-)

Latin (-mo-, -men-, -mon-, -mento-, -monio-}

205

Participial suffix -ma-na-

206

.

206

Indo-European Sanskrit (part. med. and pass, in -mdna-, -ana-).

Greek 92.

.

206 207

Latin (2 p. pi. med.-pass.) VIII. Stems with suffix origl.

209 -ra-.

Indo-European

210

Sanskrit

210

Greek

.

210 211

IX. Stems with suffix

-an-.

211

Sanskrit

93a.

.

(part, med., inf.)

Latin 93.

.

Greek

212

Latin

212

X. Stems with suffix

-ana-.

212

Indo-European Sanskrit

Greek

(infin. in -evai, eiv)

, .

212 213

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

VI

PAGE

214

Latin 94.

XI. Steins with suffix

-na-.

Sanskrit

214

Greek

215

Latin

215

Suff. -na- forming past part, pass

215

Indo-Eur

215

Sanskrit

215

Greek

215

216

Latin 95.

XII. Stems with suffix

-ni-.

216

Indo-European Sanskrit (infin.)

216

Greek

216 217

Latin 95a. 96.

XIII. Stems with suffix

XIY. Stems with suffix

-nu-.

-ta-\

past part. pass.

Indo-European

218

Sanskrit

218

Greek

219 220

Latin Suffixes 97.

whose

first

element

is -ta- (-tdti-, -tat-, -tana-']

XV. Stems with suffixes

.

223

Sanskrit (n. agentis, part, fut.)

Greek

(-rep-, -T^p-, -rop-, -TO/JO-, -rpia-, -rpiS-, -T/JO-,

-0po-, -T\O-, -T\T/-, -0\o-, -0X?7-) Latin (part. fut. in -turo- ; secondary formations of

by means

of -ya-

and

224 -tcur-

226

-lc-)

Latin suffix -Iro98.

227

XVI. Stems with suffix

-ti-.

228

Indo-European Sanskrit

(inf.,

gerunds in

Greek (shortening Latin (--, 99.

221

-tar-, -tra-.

to -T-, secondary formation into -crta-)

-tio, -tion-)

XVII. Stems with suffix Indo-European

228

-tya-, -ya-)

.

.

.

229 230

-tu-.

231

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Vll PAGE

Sanskrit

Greek

suff

.

-tuo-, -tuti-, -tudon-, -tudin-)

XYIII. Stems with suffix Sanskrit

Greek 101.

;

(inf. in

.

.

234

-dhyai)

235

(inf. in -

Since the suffixes of the Indo-European so). from roots originally independent, it bethus arise language comes clear why the suffixes, as regards step-formation, are vak

ta,

treated in precisely the

-a-mi

'

same way as the chief -roots .

bhar-a-ti

'

stretches,'

bhar-

(e.g.

I bear,' with a of stem-formative sf raised to

beside

a,

he bears/ without step-formation ta-nau-ti he beside ta-nu-masi 'we stretch,' etc.). The exact '

;

formula of the Indo-European word

is

therefore

Rx sx We .

now

treat of chief-roots, meaning- sounds, alone. have not hitherto any accurate investigation into the What sound-comlaws of root-formation in Indo-European. shall

We

the Indo-European ? Could to another at a date as early as that of the Indo-European original language ? What extension of meaning is permitted by a root, and in what cases must binations occur in the roots of

roots

change from one vowel-scale

we assume

original roots phonetically identical but nevertheless Several other similar questions hitherto unanswered might be proposed in this place. Meaning- sounds or roots (chief -roots) are generally separable distinct ?

from the words which they now underlie. The Indo-European roots seem in the first period of the life of the original language to

have possessed a sound-form

still

simpler than that shown

by

roots existing in the actual language, cf. e.g.

Note 1. Transposition of consonants such as is assumed by Alb. Kiihn, liber Wurzelvariation durch Metathesis, Bonn, 1868, e.g. in vid (see) and dw (shine), Sk. pag (bind), origl. pak, and Lat. cap (take), etc., I cannot consider proved. Note2. In a complete grammar of Indo-European this chapter ought to contain a full list not only of those roots which can be proved to be Indo-European, but also of those which are peculiar to individual divisions or families (fundamental languages) of the Indo-European language. Note 3. Hindu gram-mar, which is in this respect still followed by many European philologists, assumes no verbal-roots in a.

Hindu grammarians mark

raised

form

(e.g.

roots ending in a either (1) in the dha put, da give, instead of dha, da), or (2) give n and y, which arise from the formation of the

to the root final present stem, and therefore originally belonged to a suffix hve cry, instead of hva, hu of ga (e.g. gan be born, instead rdi bark, instead of ra), or (3) mark them with o, which obviously does no more than indicate certain peculiarities of these roots in forming their tense- stems, since in really existing forms ;

;

nowhere appears 92 sqq.

o

(e.g. co

sharpen, for

ca, a$).

Of. Beitr.

ii.

81.

This book has been considered by academicians and scholars of great significance and value to literature. This forms a part of the knowledge base for future generations. So that the book is never forgotten we have represented this book in a print format as the same form as it was originally first published. Hence any marks or annotations seen are left intentionally to preserve its true nature.

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