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Covid-19: Creating SOP awareness & Educating the Public Through Graphic Design Adeline Wong Chyn Nee

Covid-19: Creating SOP Awareness & Educating the Public Through Graphic Design Adeline Wong Chyn Nee

Adeline Wong Chyn Nee (0344017) The Design School at Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. Design Research Dissetation (DIS60304) Bachelor of Design in Creative Media August Intake Date of Submission: 13 November 2022 Cover design by Adeline Wong Chyn Nee

Table of Contents

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02

INTRODUCTION Research Theme Research Topic

3 3

Rationale Problem Statement Research Objective(s) Research Question(s)

4 5 8 8

LITERATURE Symbolic Visuals

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Use of Graphic Design in the Pandemic Visual Communication of Graphic Design Critical Review Summary

20 28 31

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Primary Data Collection Justification Target Audience Survey Design Google Form Survey

39 39 40 41

Survey sharing process

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Attempt No. 1: Instagram

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Attempt No. 2: Discord

59 61 63

Attempt No. 3: Facebook Attempt No. 4: Whatsapp

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RESULT/ FINDINGS Research Implementation Summary

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35

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Analysis & DISCUSSION Graphic Design as a Visual Communication

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Visual communication during the pademic

81 83

Impactful designs are important

The main aspect of effective SOP-related visuals

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Imagery

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Colour

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Raising awareness with visual communication 91 through SOP-related visual Visual Communication Strong vs weak SOP-related visuals

94 95

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CONCLUSION

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REFERENCE LIST

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PICTURE CREDIT

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AppendiX

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Firstly, the researcher would like to express her heartfelt thanks towards her lecturers for their support and encouragement during the weekly feedback sessions as well as off-session. She offers her sincere appreciation for this learning opportunities provided by her lecturers, with their support, the study on creating SOP awareness and educate the public about Covid-19 with visuals in designs would not be possible. Also, the submission of this project could not have been accomplished without the motivation and mutual encouragement of her course mates, Adena, Alicia, Sasilvia, and Yiki. To add to that, she would also like to acknowledge the work of authors Giorgia Aiello, Scott Bateman, J. Ziljak Grsic, Seda Nur Atasoy, Mustafa Günay and other researchers who helped complete the research articles. It is their effort that made the completion of this project possible.

Acknowledgment

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Abstract

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The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a tremendous loss of lives around the world and poses an unparalleled threat to public health, food production, and the workplace. This research examines how visuals in design can create SOP awareness and educate the public about Covid-19. The main idea and goal for this research is to identify the most effective way that visual communication in graphics and visuals could positively affect the audience’s mindset so they abide by the SOP. Not only that, but also identify the way in knowing that doing this will suffice the current lack of awareness in the society. To answer the research questions, the public’s reaction towards different SOP-related visuals were gathered using the primary research method of a survey by questionnaire which is supported by previous literature review. The gathered findings are then dissected and discussed. The results show an incline in the response towards the strong and weak visuals, whereas more respondents have positive response towards the visuals shown with stronger representation of imagery and colour. The results also showed a clear like and dislike from the respondents towards the visuals shown. With that finding translated into solutions, SOP awareness can be created through visuals in designs, and therefore educating the public about Covid-19. From a general perspective, this study puts emphasis on the need to take into account the limitations faced as only a selected and specific designs were studied.

IV

Introduction

1

Research Theme Social Design

Research Topic

Rationale

Creating SOP awareness and educating the public with impactful visuals in design

When one thinks of Graphic Design, they think of its visual communication and the use of visual elements to convey ideas and information. Communication includes signs, typography, illustration, industrial design, advertising, and electronic resources (Mess, 2021). Not only that but when communicating with a medium, different people with various tastes for aesthetics will feel and react differently. The imagery, colors, and typography in graphics design etch their way into everything, whether it be newspaper, television, social media, property structures, and so on. Graphics and visuals, when effectively used, can garner the attention of the audience for a better change such as getting together to fight against the pandemic. Presently in public health, social distancing, also called physical distancing, is a measure intended to prevent the spread of a contagious disease by maintaining a physical distance between people and reducing their contact. The visual is a means of communication and the information in it acts as a translator to people, it works as a guide and a signpost that tells you where to look, where to go, what to do, and how to do it, and in this case, to practice SOP daily. It attractively shows the most important thing which is to create SOP awareness and educate the public. Graphics and visuals as communication tools tell a story that is relevant and necessary in this pandemic. It connects the designer and the viewer with a meaningful and important message. Therefore, creating a design shows a designer’s responsibility to bring forward that message, as well as the general public that consumes them on the other end.

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Problem Statement Graphics and visuals, when applied properly, have the power to spread awareness. According to the UN (2020), they believe that creatives such as graphics and visuals have “the power to change the world” and— via their Global Call Out To Creatives—implores the design community around the world to translate “critical public health messages, into work that will engage and inform people across different cultures, languages, communities, and platforms.” (WordPress, 2020). When making an earnest appeal to change the behaviours of individuals, and communities, visual communication is key to eliciting an emotional response in the viewer and driving certain social behaviours. Although during the pandemic, we would hope to communicate verbally on spreading SOP awareness like wearing your mask, however with the use of graphics and visuals, the awareness spreading would work more effectively compared to a verbal reminder from a stranger which could cause risk when doing so (Turnbull, 2020). Visual imagery has always been crucial in reaching out to the most disadvantaged members of society. Speaking through pictures helps the illiterate understand that minority cultures accept the majority’s recommendations, and the disadvantaged become a part of society. To effectively prevent the spread of the virus in this unique global circumstance, public health messaging must reach every corner of the planet and resonate with every language and culture. That is the reason and the purpose of this research that hopefully, I can successfully bring forward to a target audience.

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Research Objective(s) 1. To identify the most effective way that visual communication in graphics and visuals could positively affect the audience’s mindset so they abide by the SOP. 2. To identify the way in knowing that doing this will suffice the current lack of awareness in our society.

Research Question(s) 1. What is the most effective way that graphics and visuals could positively affect the audience’s mindset to abide by the SOP? 1. How would we know that doing this will make up for the current lack of awareness in our society?

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LITERATURE REVIEW

This section is dedicated to the five important and relevant research article that shaped the primary research process. Secondary data obtained by using relevant literature and reviewing them critically, contextual and in relation the research problem. The research articles reviewed are written by others and are mostly relevant secondary sources such as online journal articles and publications. These are research articles in recent years that are useful for my focused topic which is the exploration of how visuals in design can create SOP awareness and educate the public about Covid-19. By discussing the research paper’s structure, methodology, evidence, conclusion, and logic, the findings are then to be brought over to design a survey questionnaire that would eventually form a solution to this research.

Symbolic Visuals Giorgia Aiello et al. in 2022 discuss ‘Generic purpose is well elaborated and explained at the beginning of the paper. The analysis showed that seemingly mundane and unremarkable visuals play an important role in mediating the Co visuals’ of Covid-19 in the news and how it invoked banal belonging through symbolic reiteration. This research aimed is to explore whether generic visuals assemble the public and, in doing so, it also aimed to foreground the role of the people in responding to the crisis. Aiello (2022) stated clearly that the vast repertoire of ‘generic visuals’, namely stock photos and simple data visualizations can ‘flatten the curve’ in the pandemic crisis and how they accomplish it. Therefore, the authors suggested that ‘generic visuals’ of Covid-19 can be used as a form of visual communication during the pandemic crisis as it is in the foreground role of the state in grappling with the crisis. The paper’s abstract and introduction were clear and easy to understand. Lastly, this review critiqued the research paper’s structure, methodology, evidence, conclusion, and logic. In this research paper, there were

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four sections, introduction, literature review, discussion of the main themes, and conclusion. This research paper was introduced clearly with a brief on how ‘generic visuals’ can be used as a form of communication to grapple with the Covid-19 pandemic crisis. The first section explained the studies related to the ‘generic visuals’ analysis which has a supporting statement that the visualizations in the media play an important role in representing and mediating the Covid-19 pandemic in particular ways. From Michael Billig’s concept, there were different types of generic visuals of Covid-19 that promote banal visions and versions of nationalism, localism, and cosmopolitanism in the face of the crisis, in a different but connected way. As a result, the author concluded his points by empirically stating how as a result of the pandemic, state intervention has increased. In the literature section, the research conducted by Giorgia Aiello et al. 2022 revolves around qualitative research that has been conducted for this study, and the research is based on empirical analysis. Their subject matter of study is news visu-

als, specifically, news visuals from three major news outlets in the UK, with the main theme focused on analyzing the ‘generic visuals’ in the news. Roles and symbolic reiteration were also analyzed. These themes explained rationally if bringing visualizations together as the author has done in the research paper was productive or not. Finally, the conclusions on the findings that the researchers have just examined can depict people which connect them emotionally. This research used a qualitative research methodology in which the researchers analyzed the empirical analysis of news visuals from three major news outlets in the author’s area of focus. Before the analysis, the author took stock photos and simple data visualizations as examples of generic visuals to better understand the visual generosity in the investigation and the work difference it does. From this part, Aiello (2022) suggested the way the audiences are brought into being, assembled as public in the research into generic visuals. In this case, the differences, similarities, and usage in the types of visualizations were analyzed. This showed that the author as a researcher here understood the materials in this research before going into an in-depth analysis of the ‘ge-

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neric visuals’ as it would be better able to achieve the objective. It is brought forward that regardless of the difference in visuals, it enabled us to foreground the more mundane and overlooked visual dimensions of Covid-19 coverage and news media more generally. This research paper consisted of thirty-two sources with scholarly articles, and books. There were also main sources from many different countries. Aiello (2022) employed deductive reasoning and cited it well in the text, with most of them being used to back up the claim. Furthermore, as the author and his team of researchers analyzed the data, logical evidence was supplied in this research report. Overall, the research report was produced without any evidence gaps.

In conclusion, the data analyzed of ‘generic visuals’ used in this research paper had supported the conclusion of this research, the author has concluded that the analysis highlighted in the research paper are ideas of belonging, grounded in a multitude of subtle ways through the use of generic visuals and symbolic reiteration. Lastly, the conclusion is well written as it has been summarized with sufficient elaboration and evidence in the analysis.

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Symbolic Visuals Bateman et al. in 2010 discussed whether embellishments usage in a chart should be reduced to plain charts. Bateman stated clearly the research aim, and in addition to that, he also elaborated it to make sure the aim of the research was clear to the readers. To discover whether the minimalist position on chart design is the better approach, Bateman (2010) made sure to cover all the possibilities to solve this problem, so he raised two issues. During the research, two main issues were analyzed by the experimenters when testing the interpretation accuracy, and memorability on different types of charts. From the experiment, the author concluded with clear evidence that strong visual images did help people to remember both the topic and details of the chart. Lastly, this review will critiqued the research paper’s structure, methodology, evidence, conclusion, and logic. In this research paper, there were four sections, introduction, literature review, discussion of the main themes, and conclusion. Chart visuals by designer Nigel Holmes are shown as the introduction to

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the experiment which will then lead to the subject matter of this research, chart visuals with and without embellishment. This research paper is introduced clearly with a brief on charts with or without embellishments, this allowed people to interpret the paper accurately. It is noticed that Bateman (2010) was non-biased in his research because he included different perspectives as well as arguments from different studies that oppose the results of his experiment. Lastly, before going into the discussion of the main themes, Bateman (2010) made a hypothesis that there can be strong effects from the inclusion of visual embellishments in charts. Bateman et al. 2010 made sure to review previous works before conducting the research, this showed that the author was thorough with his research to increase its importance. This section discussed what presentation style best conveys information to a viewer in graphic form. Bate (2010) listed out different perspectives from various researchers and gathered multiple arguments that embellishments are unnecessary. From this, Bateman gained better insights to improve his study.

After reviewing the works of other researchers, he also looked at the other side of the debate, where embellishment of data graphics is encouraged, this showed that Bateman was non-biased in his choice of literature reviews. This research used a quantitative research methodology, Bate recruited 20 participants from a local university as the subject matter. This research consisted of 2 parts. In part 1 called the chart reading phase and part 2, the recall phase, the experiment was made sure to be conducted properly and carefully by the researchers by separating the different parts and executing them correctly. From this, it was clear that Bateman was thorough with his research as he made sure to execute it fully to achieve an accurate result for his study. With this, Bateman (2010) hypothesized that visual embellishments would aid recall and the result confirmed Bateman’s hypothesis regarding the interpretation accuracy and memorability upon viewing an embellished chart. Bateman showed an author’s competency in completing this research as he maintained accuracy in the results due to careful planning and research. Finally, 5 findings were concluded in the experiment that proves the interpretation accuracy, and mem-

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orability of embellishment usage in charts. This research paper consisted of twenty-four sources with scholarly articles, and books. There were also main sources from different countries and published dates. The author employed deductive reasoning and cited it well in the text, with most of them being used to back up the claim. Furthermore, as the author and his team of researchers analyzed the data, sufficient evidence was supplied in this research report. Overall, the research report was well supported by evidence and analysis, as well as well produced without any evidence gaps due to their careful planning and research. In conclusion, Bateman (2010) showed the quality of trustworthiness during the whole research

process because he did not make other conclusions unrelated to his research in the research paper for he lacked the evidence for that specific hypothesis. Not only that, the result from the participants’ experiment supported the hypothesis of this research. As a concluding question, Bateman (2010) also brought up the question of whether we should use the imagery in charts to improve recall, and although he mentioned that it is potentially contentious, designers should be encouraged to use them. Lastly, the conclusion is well written as it has been summarized with sufficient elaboration and evidence in the analysis.

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Use of Graphic Design in the Pandemic This research paper by J. Ziljak Grsic et al. in 2022 discussed the design solution using computer graphics to raise awareness about the COVID-19 pandemic. This research aimed is to create a graphic solution to inform the public about the new virus and its consequences and, in doing so, it also aimed to spread a proactive and positive influence on the public. In a pandemic where graphic design could became a metalanguage for spreading awareness, Ziljak (2022) hoped to get an insight into the student’s perspective with an interview. The range of answers in the questionnaire is sufficiently wide which allows a better understanding and overall result. A clear objective is demonstrated in this paper, the final design solution would become another way that this social network generation would better react. From the result, it is known that students do not dispute the importance of design in global issues and problems, however, they did not see their role as equally important. The downside of conducting a questionnaire is that Ziljak (2022) concluded a wider range of answers from the

students than expected, this resulted in an open-ended question unanswered. Lastly, this review will critiqued the research paper’s structure, methodology, evidence, conclusion, and logic. In this paper, there are four sections, introduction, literature review, discussion of the main themes, and conclusion. This paper was introduced clearly with a short brief on the reason for research and the way to approach it. The introduction has a moderate word count however, there were no thought-provoking statements or sentences as it does not adopt elaborative word choice. The second page shows an unclear image of all the questions to be answered, and the content on the image is not readable. As for the research section, Ziljak (2022) successfully acquired the results from the questionnaire through adequate planning of the study. It was suggested that it is desirable to base the students’ work on current global issues, this was a valid suggestion as it is supported by the student’s com-

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ments which were shared at the end of the questionnaire. In the research section, the research conducted by J. Ziljak Grsic et al. 2022 revolved around quantitative research that has been conducted for this study, and the research is based on factual analysis using the form of a questionnaire and collecting answers from 55 third-year students from a local university, 40 of them were male and 15 female. The subject matter of the students, specifically, their answers to the questionnaire. The data analysis part could be further developed, therefore giving more insight into the research. However, this experiment did explain rationally the students’ perspective on the issue and also encouraged the viewers to be maximally engaged in spreading awareness around the pandemic. This research paper consists of five sources with scholarly articles, and books. The main sources with different languages. The author employed deductive reasoning and cited it well in the text, with most of them being used to back up the claim. Furthermore, as Ziljak and her team analyzed the data, sufficient evidence was not supplied in this research report and could be further developed. However, overall, The research report was well

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supported by evidence due to careful planning and research. In conclusion, Ziljak (2022) remained consistent throughout the whole research paper. Although some parts could have had more elaboration, the phrasing in this research paper is consistent enough. The results from the participants’ answers to the questionnaire have clearly supported the purpose of this research. As a concluding statement, Ziljak (2022) brought up a message hoping to remind the students and people to put de-

sign’s influence to use. In the message, she said, “With the cooperation of students and people who have been in this profession for a long time, it will be easier to create the right message that will reach all of us.” Lastly, the conclusion is well written as it has been summarized with a good message.

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Use of Graphic Design in the Pandemic This research paper by Seda Nur Atasoy et al. in 2021 discusses the significance of visual communication tools that can direct people’s feelings, thoughts, and ideas such as anxiety and loneliness in times of crisis. This research aims to examine the communication power that graphic design has created during the pandemic process by inspecting the current works of a common language that has been put forward as a graphic language. In doing so, it also hopes to unite the people in the name of graphic design. From the introduction, Atasoy (2021) showed her awareness of the issue as an author. In this paper, she suggests that the way people view pandemic news positively is due to the careful process of a designer. Before going into the research, Atasoy (2021) stated clearly the purpose and problem of the research with elaboration. Lastly, this review will critique the research paper’s structure, methodology, findings, conclusion, and logic In this research paper, there are five sections, introduction, literature

review, findings, data analysis, and conclusion. The introduction was clear and straightforward, making it easy to digest from the first read. To examine the communication power that graphic design has created during the pandemic process, Atasoy (2021) examined many aspects of this problem and made sure the previous studies were accurate to carry out complete research with correct results. There are three parts to the research, and all three parts have a role to contribute to the result of this study. This shows that the author was thorough and made sure to not leave any gap in the research. The research problem is stated before the research section, this could help guide the readers to find a purpose in their read. Lastly, Atasoy (2021) elaborated on the methods and data collection tools used before going into the finding parts of the paper. In the research section, the research conducted by Seda Nur Atasoy et al. 2021 revolves around qualitative research that

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has been conducted for this study, and with random sampling, the graphic designs/ visuals most suitable for the content were selected as subject matters. Atasoy planned appropriately the chosen subject matters for a diverse study and result. Atasoy (2021) had chosen a wide range of subject matters to research, they ranged from illustrations to infographics from all periods. This shows how Atasoy (2021) made sure to include all viewpoints from different periods. The author established multiple examples from the visuals to prove that graphic design can be an effective tool to understand people better. This data collection clearly showed the positive impact graphic designs and visuals bring to the table during this crisis time. In the next part, Atasoy (2021) emphasized the significance and responsibility of media influence towards people in this crisis time, ideally, they are to positively convey news while still spreading awareness, this proves research aspects sufficiency in this section. This research paper consists of eighteen sources with scholarly articles, and books. There were also main sources from different languages and published dates. The author employed deductive reasoning and cited it well in the text,

with most of them being used to back up the claim. Furthermore, as the author and his team of researchers analyzed the data, logical evidence was supplied in this research report. Overall, the research report was well supported by evidence and analysis, as well as well produced without any evidence gaps. In conclusion, Atasoy (2021) demonstrated a great sense of responsibility and did her part when writing this paper by spreading awareness and putting emphasis on graphic design continuously as an effective communication tool. In the finding section, appropriate examples are well utilized to prove its impact on society during the pandemic crisis. Atasoy (2021) is thorough as she made sure to cover the negatives along with the positives to spread the whole

spectrum of awareness. Just like how graphic design can encourage and help people to do and feel better, the author too had undertaken the task of conveying that message to the reader. In conclusion, the findings from this research clearly support the arguments of this paper, and lastly, the conclusion is well written as it has been summarized with sufficient elaboration and evidence in the analysis.

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Graphic Design and Visual Communication Günay et al. in 2021 discuss how visual communication is used in all activity areas in daily life and how important this situation is. To do that, Günay will conduct a study to investigate the concept of design in visual communication states. Before embarking on the study, Günay (2021) made sure to obtain the required literature source for this study, he reviewed many previous works by various authors and researchers to make sure all aspects of the problem is covered. Using the explorative research method, Günay (2021) increased the importance of this study by carefully obtaining findings from there and addressing them. Günay (2021) showed an author’s sense of responsibility when he discovered from a previous study that some topics have been neglected. Therefore, he realized to address this topic to increase the importance of his study. He also elaborated it to make sure the aim of the research was clear to the readers. From the study, the author concluded with sufficient evidence that visual communication is applied in all activity areas of daily life and this situation has become

highly important. Lastly, this review will critique the research paper’s structure, methodology, evidence, conclusion, and logic. In this research paper, there are five sections: abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of the main themes, and conclusion. Günay introduced the paper with comprehensive abstract writing that can hook the readers while still containing words that are easy to digest. In the introduction, he successfully conveyed the importance of visual communication in graphic design by bringing light to the influence visuals have on society. This section sets a good start for the paper because it makes the reader want to learn more about it. Going into the literature review, Günay (2021) deciphered his focused topic, visual communication. This section proves that Günay (2021) took responsibility as an author and was reliable in understanding the topic before embarking on his study. Günay discussed various types of communicators and made sure to cover every

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important visual communication product. Günay concluded his writings by covering all the results from his study, he also took the chance to spread awareness on design pollution which shows the author’s sense of duty to advocate in this paper. This research used a qualitative research methodology, Günay studied different types of examples from previous studies and addressed the problem completely, this allows the author to gain better insights to improve his study. When writing, detailed elaborations are addressed and the purpose of the study is mentioned as well, this shows that the author was thorough with his research to increase its importance. Not only that, many visuals are seen in the paper to enhance the readers’ experience by understanding through effective visual learning. Thus, proving the point of this study, visual communication. Finally, it is concluded from the study that visual objects are always able to keep people’s attention high. This research paper consists of twenty-four sources with scholarly articles, and books. There were also main sources from other languages. The author em-

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ployed deductive reasoning and cited it well in the text, with most of them being used to back up the claim. Furthermore, as the author analyzed the data, sufficient evidence was supplied in this research report. Overall, the research report was well supported by sufficient study and analysis, as well as well produced without any evidence gaps due to careful planning and research. In conclusion, Günay (2021) addressed well the main issue of the discussion evidently during the whole research process. Not only that, the result from his study addressed and supported clearly the suggestions of this research. In the conclusion, Günay (2021) carefully brought up the consequences of over-consumption of design pollution, he, therefore, stated that users have to be more aware of this issue so it does not

affect them over time. This shows how even though the author continuously emphasized the importance of visual communication, the consequences of it are not looked past and ignored because they should not. Lastly, the conclusion is well written as it has been summarized with a good message in the end.

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LITERATURE REVIEW Summary

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In the first section, symbolic visuals, the author performed the most in-depth research analysis compared to the other four papers. This paper is also credible and filled with insights from other pieces of literature to back up the research claims. The author showed clear experimentation through his presented examples during the research. The research was carried out in a non-biased manner where both perspectives of the argument are included, this resulted in accurate data results due to careful planning and research. In the second section, which is the use of graphic design in the pandemic, the author had a clear objective for the research, however, overlooked the downside of conducting a questionnaire as she concluded a wider range of answers from the students than expected, resulting in an open-ended question unanswered. The author also remained consistent throughout the sections of the research paper. Although some parts could have had more elaboration, the questionnaire clearly supported the purpose of this research. The author was also the only one who used her concluding statement to bring up a message for the students. Lastly in the visual communication of graphic design section, the author showed a sense of responsibility when he addressed the neglected topics from a previous study to increase the importance of his study. The importance of visual communication in graphic design is also stated for the reader’s context which marks a good start to the paper.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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PRIMARY DATA collection (Mixed method: Qualitative & Quantitative)

This section is dedicated to collecting primary data for the study. Secondary data that were obtained through literature review are applied in this section by helping to form and design the chosen primary research method, which in this case is a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative data. All evidence to support data collection is to be organised well. This section is relevant to the study as it would eventually provide a solution to the research problem, with the given findings, the result from that would be more accurate and relevent with the opinions of the public. The chosen and suitable primary research method that is relevant to the study is a survey questionnaire which offers a more comfortable way of reaching out to responders because it is less time-consuming and less expensive than the traditional method of getting information through oneon-one engagement.

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Online survey An online survey is a set of structured questions that the respondent completes over the internet, generally by filling out a form. It is a more natural way to reach out to the respondents as it is less time-consuming than the traditional way of gathering information through one-to-one interaction and is less expensive. The data is collected and stored in a database, which is later evaluated by an expert in the field (Bhat, 2022). An online survey was conducted for the general public within the age group of 19-64 who views SOP-related visuals. The online survey includes 3 parts, the first part includes general questions such as their name, age, gender, and occupation. The second part contains multiple choice questions regarding their thoughts on SOP-related visuals. After answers from parts 1 and 2 are acquired, the third part of the online survey contains short answers to questions regarding their views on the effectiveness of SOP-related visuals to further attain the objective. In this survey, the most important part is the creation of questions that accurately measured the opinions, experiences, and behaviors of the target audience. The questions created also should not be built on a shaky and biased foundation. That way, a well-written and organized questionnaire can be created (Writing Survey Questions, 2021).

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JUSTIFICATION

SURVEY DESIGN

By using the mixed method data collection method, it is to collect opinions of the people who view SOP-related visuals about its effectiveness in educating the public. From there, hopefully, discover a better way to positively affect the public’s mindset in order to spread awareness. It is also to further understand how SOP-related visuals can suffice the current lack of awareness in our society.

PART 01

Target Audience The general public within the age group of 1964 who views SOP-related visuals and has their own opinions regarding this issue was the target audience. A survey should be accessible to all age groups in Malaysia due to the way SOP-related visuals apply to the general public during the pandemic. However, in order to achieve accuracy and avoid false responses, the age group is to be limited to the working age group. The age group of the target audience ranged from the start of working age of a young person which is 19 years old to mature working age which is 64 years old (Shah, 2020).

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General questions helped understood the respondent better

PART 02 Multiple choice questions regarding the imagery, colors, memorability, and effectiveness of SOP-related visuals (a variety of images will be attached, posters, billboards, and SOP measures design in public) During part 2, the respondents’ reacted emotions upon viewing the images shown will be focused on. Questions surrounding the medium, colors, imagery, text, and memorability of each of the images will be asked. The results of the survey provided some possible answers as to the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of SOP-related visuals on the public.

PART 03 Short answer questions regarding the respondents’ opinions and views about the SOP-related visuals, like “Do you believe visuals could positively affect the public’s mindset to abide by the SOP?” OR “What would you prefer to see in an effective SOP-relate visual?”

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GOOGLE FORM SURVEY Justification In this case, by using Google Form as a questionnaire medium, both researcher and the respondents benefited from using a familiar and widely used survey platform which allowed fast and effective survey making as well as survey taking process. A sample of the Google form survey is found in Appendix A (found on pages 4344).

Google Survey Title Survey on SOP-related visuals Description Hi, my name is Adeline Wong! This 10 minutes survey is a data collection stage in research titled “Creating SOP awareness and educating the public with impactful visuals in design” for the module Design Research Methodology. It aims to discover the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of SOP-related visuals. The survey which is split into three parts aims to find out the user’s emotional reaction toward the colors, imagery, and text of an SOP-related visual during the pandemic. The ultimate objective of this survey is to see whether the impactful design and visuals have the ability to create SOP awareness and educate the public of the Covid-19.

DISCLAIMER 1. This survey will be recorded anonymously and names will not be disclosed to the public. 2. All copyright of the images used in this survey is reserved for the owners. 3. This survey focuses on respondents between the age group of 19 and 64 years old, however, respondents outside of age groups are welcome to participate in this survey as well. 4. Please spend at least 5-10 minutes on this survey, thank you in advance.

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SURVEY SHARING PROCESS For better accuracy and reliability from the survey results, multiple attempts were made for the survey to be spread widely for more variety in respondents. During the attempts, the survey was shared through relevant social media and communication platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, Whatsapp, and Discord. The attempts were successful as they obtained a total of 76 respondents in 11 days, and with respondents of all ages and occupations, the range of opinions was wide and comprehensive enough to fulfill the purpose of the survey.

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Attempt 01: Instagram On the day which the Google Form survey was finalized, the first attempt was to send it out through an Instagram story, Instagram stories are more fleeting and fun. they are only 15 seconds long and disappear 24 hours after they are posted (K, 2021). This allowed more viewers to come across the post which was made interactive so the viewer clicked on the attached survey link. For the Instagram story posts, a more humorous approach was attempted for it is believed that to hook a viewer enough for them to engage with something, there has to be an important story in an action-oriented way that focused on a significant outcome. This got readers excited to learn more about this individual’s story (Gormandy White, 2022). To carry out this step, an attempt was made to make a connection to my research problem, therefore, a series of text, as well as imagery of sharp colours, are utilized in this step. The few shared Instagram stories feature short messages, the survey link, and a few images to elevate the given story. The images used are typically called “food cat memes”, which wis a meme with a pitiful kitten as different foods such as strawberries, ramen, onion rings, or even the Mcdonald’s happy meals. In the stories, viewers found a short message and the meme, written in a fun and “threatening” manner which most younger viewers found relevant and interesting.

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4 June Explanation: The space below the message was where the viewer found the meme which is red (strawberry cat) and the inserted survey link in blue. In the next story, viewers clicked to see a “bonked” version of the same previous strawberry cat as a consequence of not clicking on the survey link in the previous survey. However, the survey link is included in the second story as well to give the viewers a second chance at clicking the link after witnessing the bonking of a poor cute strawberry cat.

6 June Explanation: A second Instagram story post was made to continue the effort on my first post attempt, it was also to remind the viewer that I have a survey that lots of my viewers have yet to fill up. In this Instagram story, a similar message was written however it was paired with a different set of food cat memes. This time, it was a McDonald’s a happy meal with fries on the side.

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Attempt 02: DISCORD After sending out the survey on Instagram, Discord was the second best attempt in sending out my survey link as it is a platform that allowed engaging communities of students and friends to share their work and also received the necessary survey intakes in return. Users can communicate with voice calls, video calls, text messaging, media, and files in private chats or as part of communities called “servers”. In the case of this research, many surveys were shared in the survey channel in our BDCM server, a total of 20 surveys were shared and the senders all supported each other by doing each other’s survey, one would typically leave a reaction under a person’s message to indicate that they have done that person’s survey. In that case, a total of 13 responses were acquired from this attempt.

4 June Explanation: The space below the message was where the viewer found the meme which is red (strawberry cat) and the inserted survey link in blue. In the next story, viewers clicked to see a “bonked” version of the same previous strawberry cat as a consequence of not clicking on the survey link in the previous survey. However, the survey link is included in the second story as well to give the viewers a second chance at clicking the link after witnessing the bonking of a poor cute strawberry cat.

Attempt 03: FACEBOOK After sharing to Discord, a third attempt was made in sharing the survey to expand the age group of the survey respondents. According to Pew, 62% of internet users ages 65 and older use Facebook, and 72% of 50- to 64-year-olds used it. Facebook had the highest number of users in these age ranges (Morrison, 2021). This attempt was made to target more respondents from the age group of 45- to 64 years old. To do that, the survey link was shared to 2 different survey sharing groups, and the way it worked is that once a survey is posted in the group and someone finishes the survey, they would screenshot their confirmation message and post them in the comment sections of the post, reminding the survey owner to return the favor by completing their survey.

SHARED GROUP Survey Exchange / Survey Group / Survey Participants - Dissertation, Thesis

SHARED GROUP Student Survey Exchange

Attempt 04: WHATSAPP After the Facebook posts are shared, a fourth and final attempt is made to garner more respondents to achieve a more accurate and thorough survey result. A short description message is sent along with the link to let the receivers know what they are getting into upon clicking on the survey link. During this attempt, the survey message was sent to 4 different group chats that would help with increasing the response amount. The group chats which received the messages are ‘Dia/Them’ a club group chats, ‘Ventes 5 mil’ a company’s group chat, ‘#2578911’ a group chat of close friends, and lastly, ‘sisters’ a family group chat.

SHARED GROUP - University club group - Family groups - Friend group - Colleague’s group

RESULTS & FINDINGS

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GENERAL QUESTIONS RESPONSES On June 4th, the survey was sent out to multiple social media and communication platforms and garnered a total of 80 respondents in the time span of 12 days.

1. AGE GROUP

2. GENDER

The chart above showed how more than half of the respondents are of the age group of 19- 24 years old while the second most age group respondents are from the age group of 12- 34 years old. On the other hand, respondents from the age group of 35 until 64 years old are recorded to be less than the mass. Lastly, a percentage of 7.8 percent is recorded from those who are under 19 years old which leads to the conclusion that more respondents from the younger age groups such as those under 19, 1924, and 25- 35 years old took the survey with more than 80% of them recorded.

The chart above showed that more than half of the respondents are female with 71.3% of them taking this survey. On the other hand, male respondents cover less at 25% with more than a quarter of the respondents recorded. Lastly, the remaining 3.6% of the respondents identified as non-binary or gender fluid. From this, it is clear that more females are taking this survey than the rest of the genders. This could imply that more females were interested in taking a survey regarding SOP-related visuals or design in general.

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3. OCCUPATION

4. FAMILIARITY

The chart above showed how more than half of the respondents are students with 66.3% of them eho took this survey. On the other hand, respondents who are employed cover less at 23.8% with exactly a quarter of the respondents recorded. Self-employed and unemployed respondents cover 5% and the rest at 4.8%. From this, it was clear that most of the respondents are either students, employed, unemployed, and self-employed.

The chart above showed how more than 92.5% of the respondents have seen or were familiar with SOP-related visuals. On the other hand, only 6.3% of the total respondents were unsure of their familiarity with SOP-related visuals, the remaining 1.2% are not aware of them. From this, it was clear that most of the respondents have seen or are familiar with SOP-related visuals, and the amount of awareness in them could increase the accuracy of the survey’s result.

5. OPINION The chart above showed that 85% of the respondents believe that changing the colours, imagery, and text on an SOP-related visual can change how someone perceives them. Another 11.3% of respondents did not agree with the vast majority. On the other hand, 3 respondents had a different view from the majority, and their answers are derived from their personal experience with SOP-related visuals. From this, it was clear that most of the respondents believe that changing the colours, imagery, and text on an SOP-related visual can change how someone perceived them while the rest either do not agree or have different opinions other than the two given answers.

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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS RESPONSES

6. DESCRIBE YOUR FEELING

7. DESCRIBE YOUR FEELING

The chart above showed how most of the respondents had feelings of uninterest (56.3%), unfocus (38.8), and demotivate (37.5%) upon viewing the images above. On the other hand, the respondents felt the least inspired (3.8%), memorable (6.3%), and interested (8.8%) upon viewing the images above. From this, it was clear that most of the respondents expressed negatively towards the images shown to them.

The chart above showed how most of the respondents had feelings of being interested (62.5%), guided (53.8%), and focused (47.5%) upon viewing the images above. On the other hand, the respondents felt the least lost (1%), unfocused(1.3%), and unmotivated (2.5%) along with insignificant (2.5%) upon viewing the images above. From this, it was clear that most of the respondents expressed positively toward the images shown to them.

8. OPINION

9. REASON FOR “YES”

The chart above showed how more than 80% of the respondents thought that the information in the image shown in Fig. 5.8 was conveyed with the use of colors, while the remaining 16.2% do not think so. From this, it was clear that most of the respondents think of colors in an SOP-related visual as useful to convey information.

The chart above showed how 64.3% of the respondents who chose ‘yes’ in question 8 agreed that the appropriate colours used in the images are shown as a factor of the clearly conveyed information. Not only that, but the respondents also agreed on the rest of the answer options upon viewing the images above but the least option agreed upon is that the colours used increase memorability of the content. The remaining 1.5% is colorblind and therefore does not apply to this section of the questions. From this, it was clear that most respondents agree that the colours help convey content on the image shown because it was used appropriately.

10. REASON FOR “NO” Most of the respondents who answered ‘no’ in question 8 expressed with their short answers that the colors used are distracting, unclear, and oversaturated, which in some cases would make the text hard to read. Not only that, but some respondents also expressed how they personally view the colors differently from the image in this question. Other than that, one respondent strayed away from the question and advised the researcher to give a brief explanation of the term SOP for a better context of the survey. From this, it was evident that most of the respondents feel as though the colors shown are ineffective in better conveying the information.

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11. opinion

12. reason for “yes’

14. opinion (recap)

15. opinion (RECAP)

The chart above showed how almost 80% of the respondents think that Covid-19-related information can be conveyed clearer through the use of imagery and visuals. On the other hand, 22.5% of respondents disagreed with the majority. From this, it was clear that most of the respondents think of imageries in an SOP-related visual as useful to convey information.

The chart above showed how 55.4% of the respondents who chose ‘yes’ in question 11 agree that the imagery used allowed a better understanding of the design’s content. Not only that, but the respondents also agreed on the rest of the answer options upon viewing the images above but the least option agreed upon is that the imagery used is straightforward. The remaining 1.5% felt as though the imagery might overcrowd the attention of viewers and can be conveyed with simpler and clearer visuals. From this, it was clear that most of the respondents agree that the imagery helps to convey content on the image shown because it allows a better understanding of the design’s content.

The chart above showed how 75% of the respondents agree that straightforward images used on a design are an aspect that helped create SOP awareness and educated the public of the Covid-19. Not only that, but the respondents also agreed with the rest of the answer options upon viewing the images above. The remaining 1.3% explains how the public is so used to seeing the two people vector in a socially distancing visual, therefore helping to create SOP awareness. From this, it was clear that the straightforward imagery of an SOP-related visual is an important aspect of a design that can help create SOP awareness effectively.

The chart above showed how more than 90% of the respondents believed that the change in colours, imagery and text of an SOP-related visual can create SOP awareness and educate the public of the Covid-19. On the other hand, 5% of the respondents believed it does not matter, while the rest were unsure as well as unclear of the meaning of SOP. From this, it is clear that most of the respondents believed it makes a difference and this also means that most of the respondents have not changed their view on an SOP-related visual’s ability to educate the public of the Covid-19 based on its change in colours, imagery, and text. Lastly, some respondents are unclear about the context of this survey, meaning it would be better to include a short brief on what SOP means.

13. REASON FOR “NO” Most of the respondents who answered ‘no’ in question 11 expressed with their short answers that the colours, images, and texts used are messy, over complicated, and unclear, which in some cases would make the information hard to grasp in their first scan. From this, it was evident that most of the respondents feel as though the colours, images, and texts shown should be simple and straightforward for a more effective SOP-related visual for the public.

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SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS RESPONSES 14. opinions on awareness apreading visuals In this section, a total valid response amount is 77 responses with 71 of them agreeing that using visuals, could positively affect the public’s mindset to abide by the SOP, 3 of them disagree, and the rest were unsure and have different opinions than the vast majority. Most of the respondents believed that the right use of visuals like eye-catching colours and straightforward imagery could attract and motivate the viewer to abide by the SOP. On the other hand, a few respondents believed that using visuals could not positively affect the public to abide by the SOP because they believe it takes more than visuals and instructions to do that, not just visuals such as colours, text, and imagery on a design. The rest of the respondents believed that it depends on the viewer itself whether they would abide by the SOP or not and not just visuals on a design, they believed that in the beginning, it may portray as a reminder however they may get redundant and repetitive which may seem no longer interesting enough for the public as they may seem redundant and repetitive. From this, it was clear that most of the respondents believed that the right use of visuals like eye-catching colours and straightforward imagery could attract and motivate the viewer to abide by the SOP.

15. visual elements that promt them to take action In this section, the total valid response amount was 77 responses with all of the respondents having different opinions and understandings of the question asked. From the 77 responses, similar responses are first grouped then similar keywords are looked out for to create a summary for each one. Most of the respondents expressed that the appropriate use of eye-catching colors would grab their attention and prompt them to take action and gain more awareness about Covid-19. Following that are a group of respondents who believe that minimalistic and straightforward designs with an easy-to-understand simple message would prompt them to take action and gain more awareness about Covid-19. Not only that, the other respondents believe that SOP-related graphics, pictograms, or images that are easy to understand would prompt them to take action. Lastly, the rest of the respondents feel as though maybe an impactful video would prompt them to take action. Other than that, some respondents expressed their confusion about the survey in this question regarding the meaning of SOP, this shows the carelessness of the researcher while creating the survey. From this, it is clear that most of the respondents believe that the appropriate use of eye-catching colors could prompt them to take action and create more awareness in themselves.

16. comments on the survey This last question is included to understand more ways to improve the survey, respondents shared that the typographic elements can be explored further in this survey, giving it more recognition. Not only that, but many times throughout the survey, many respondents have mentioned that they are confused about the word ‘SOP’ and that a brief explanation should be included in the description for the respondents’ context. Lastly, a respondent commented that some questions can be worded better to appear more credible to the respondents. At the end of the survey, some flaws that are discovered should be worked on and improved by the researcher to create a better survey in the future.

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Graphic design as a visual communicator From evaluating the responses to the general question, it is observed that respondents from the younger age groups such as those under 19, 19- 24, and 25- 35 years old that are typically females took the survey more than the rest. The respondents are typically students or employees who have seen or are familiar with SOP-related visuals, they also believe that changing the colours, imagery, and text on an SOP-related visual can change how someone perceives them while the rest either do not agree or have different opinions. When shown some images of poorly designed SOP-related visuals lacking in the proper use of colours, text, and imagery, most of the respondents expressed negatively towards the images shown to them. On the other hand, when a well-designed SOP-related visual is shown with the proper application of colours, texts, and imagery to improve the design, most of the respondents expressed positively toward the images shown to them. The next question shows an image with a variety of colours that works to show different information in a design, most of the respondents think of colours as useful to convey information, and that is because they think the colours help convey content on the image shown are applied appropriately. For the respondents who answered ‘no’, they feel as though the colours shown are ineffective in better conveying the information. Going into the next question, the respondents are shown some SOP-related designs

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of imagery and illustrations. From there, most respondents think of imageries in an SOP-related visual as useful to convey information because they believe that imagery helps allow a better understanding of the design’s content. For the respondents who answered ‘no’, they feel as though the colours, images, and texts shown should be straightforward for a more effective SOP-related visual for the public rather than a complicated design. As a conclusion to part 2, the same question as question 5 is asked once again to understand if the respondents’ answers have changed their view on an SOP-related visual after answering the multiple choice questions above. From this, most of the respondents still believe it makes a difference and this also means that most of the respondents have not changed their view on an SOP-related visual’s ability to educate the public of the Covid-19 based on its change in colours, imagery, and text, proving its significance in creating awareness and educating the public. Lastly, the respondents were asked a short answer question that required them to elaborate, on “whether using visuals, could positively affect the public’s mindset to abide by the SOP? Elaborate your answer by stating how”. The most common keywords from the respondents’ answers are grouped to form a statement. The concluded statement from the majority of respondents is that they believed the right use of visuals like eye-catching colours and straightforward im-

agery could attract and motivate the viewer to abide by the SOP. Next, when asked what kind of imagery/ graphic elements in an SOP-related visual would prompt them to take action and create more awareness in them, most of the respondents answered that the appropriate use of eye-catching colours could prompt them to take action and create more awareness in themselves. Finally, the respondents shared their opinions on the survey and some important comments were noted down. Comments such as how the typographic elements can be explored further in this survey, and to give it more recognition. Not only that, but many times throughout the survey, many respondents have mentioned that they were confused about the word ‘SOP’ and that a brief explanation should be included in the description for the respondents’ context. Lastly, a respondent commented that some questions can be worded better to appear more credible to the respondents. At the end of the survey, some flaws that are discovered should be worked on and improved by the researcher to create a better survey in the future.

This section is dedicated to collecting primary data for the study. Secondary data that were obtained through literature review are applied in this section by helping to form and design the chosen primary research method, which in this case is a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative data. All evidence to support data collection is to be organised well. This section is relevant to the study as it would eventually provide a solution to the research problem, with the given findings, the

result from that would be more accurate and relevent with the opinions of the public. The chosen and suitable primary research method that is relevant to the study is a survey questionnaire which offers a more comfortable way of reaching out to responders because it is less time-consuming and less expensive than the traditional method of getting information through one-on-one engagement.

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Analysis & discussion

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Graphic design as a visual communicator visual communication during the pandemic The visual is a means of communication, and the information contained within it acts as a translator to people; it serves as a guide and a signpost, telling you where to look, where to go, what to do, and how to do it, and in this case, to practice SOP (Standard Operation Procedures) on a daily basis (Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) #ReopeningSafely, 2022). It effectively conveys the most crucial message, which is to raise SOP awareness and educate the public. Graphics and visuals as communication tools present an important and crucial tale in this pandemic. During the 2020 pandemic, the SOP was enforced in accordance with Regulation 17 of the “Prevention And Control Of Infectious Diseases” to control the rising cases in Malaysia. In that period, the government used a budget of more than RM300 million to create and develop the Sejahtera app, however, there seems to be a sharp drop of 30.3 per cent in the MySejahtera app during the end of the first quarter of the year 2022 (Tong, 2022). The MySejahtera app is a digital medium for visual communication during the pandemic, however many thought that the user experience is unsatisfactory, which weakens its effectiveness in aiding the country’s COVID-19 outbreaks management (Rodzi, 2022). Nevertheless, it is proven in many ways that vi-

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sual communication is a key weapon to fight and stop the spread of the disease by changing the mindset of the public. Professor Mustafa Günay (2021) concluded with sufficient evidence that visual communication is applied in all activity areas of daily life and this situation has become highly important. In the following sections, discussions regarding visual communication through SOP-related visuals will be analyzed in order to determine its role during the Covid-19 pandemic.

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Impactful designs are important Through posters, billboards, brochures, and many more physical visual communicators, graphic design is applied to deliver an important message to the public regarding the Covid-19 outbreak status. Although some may assume that graphic design is no longer important, even for people in the industry, on the contrary, statistic shows that $15 billion is generated in revenue by the industry in 2020, which is a 3.5% annual growth rate (Zosimo, 2020). Physical graphic design communicators are doing quite well and are still the number one marketing channel in some industries (Djordjevic, 2021). A hypothesis here is that graphic design as a visual communicator is a valuable method of conveying a message. This is backed up by a research paper by Scott Bateman in the literature section, in his paper, which concluded that there can be strong effects from the inclusion of visual embellishments in charts. However, only with impactful design choices will the message be properly conveyed and understood. This is shown in the survey conducted regarding SOP-related visuals.

Fig. 5.1 Carnelian Laboratory (2022). Face Mask Required Poster

The visual shown in Fig. 5.1 represents an SOP-related visual in a physical form which is a poster, all imagery, colour, and text are well incorporated in the design, and the respondents’ role is to interpret their opinions into the questions asked. In this case, their familiarity with an SOP-related visual.

Fig. 5.2 Google Form survey result, question 4

The question on their familiarity with SOP-related visuals shows that 92.5% of the respondents are familiar with SOP-related visuals. With this information, the respondents were asked whether the change in imagery, colour, and text in the visuals can help them perceive its content differently.

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Fig. 5.3 Google Form survey result, question 5

From there, 85% of them believe that with a change in imagery, color, and text, the viewer can perceive its content differently. This finding plays a part in spreading awareness of the dangers of Covid-19 during the pandemic by creating awareness of it with effective design choices. This is proven in Fig. 5.3 regarding their feelings upon viewing visuals that are strong and has the ability to spread awareness.

Fig. 5.6 SOP-related design with weak use of imagery, colour, and text

Fig. 5.7 Google Form survey result, question 6

Fig. 5.4 SOP-related design with strong use of imagery, colour, and text

Fig. 5.5 Google Form survey result, question 7

As shown in Fig. 5.5, the effectiveness of strong and impactful design choices can promote interest, create focus, and guide the public, thus giving them reasons to be more aware of the issue spreading which in this case is the importance of SOP to fight against Covid-19.

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In contrast, poor SOP-related visuals like the visuals in Fig. 5.6 are shown, and uninterested, demotivated, and unfocused are the three most frequent choices of negative feelings by the respondents. With more respondents feeling interested in the visuals with strong use of imagery, color, and text, and vice versa. This shows the positive and negative impact of both strong and weak visuals made on the respondents, as well as proved the impacts of design on physical visual communicators currently such as on posters, billboards, brochures, and many more. This conclusion is able to uphold the above statement that impactful designs are important and makes a difference, and it is rather thriving and thus far still effective at spreading awareness that positively affects the audience’s mindset to abide by the SOP. To conclude, impactful designs are important and an effective solution to positively affect the audience’s mindset to abide by the SOP.

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The main aspect of effective SOP-related visuals Imagery In this section, imagery as one of the two aspects of effective SOP-related visuals along with colour is focused on. Effective imagery on a design is tested and explored in the current research survey to further understand the respondents’ behaviors and opinions towards imagery in an SOP-related visual. According to Esposito (2020), images in graphic design aid to tie the text to the layout and can clarify the information offered by adding context and evoking connections. However, an image by itself is insufficient to convey meaning. Its meaning varies based on its context and place, or how it is utilized. To better understand the respondents’ views on the familiar visuals and imagery that are often seen, the examples in Fig. 5.8 are taken from MySejahtera. Based on the demographics, it could allow better accuracy from the respondents’ results, and by doing so, find the most effective way by which the imagery can positively affect their mindset to abide by the SOP. With the example given, the likes and dislikes of the respondents will be gathered, and their reasons for their answers will be dissected. With the image in Fig. 5.8, the respondents are asked about effective or ineffective communication to discover the best way imagery should be conveyed during a pandemic.

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Fig. 5.8 Designs examples with imagery from MySejahtera

Fig. 5.9 Google Form survey result, question 11

Fig. 5.10 Google Form survey result, question 12

In the research survey chart result shown in Fig. 2.2, over 77% of the respondents believe that information can be conveyed clearly through the use of imagery as a visual communicator, from there, 55.4% of them believe that the imagery used allows a better understanding of the content (refer to Fig. 2.3), in other words, it helps to better convey the information of the design by evoking connection between the imagery and content. It is said to be the most important aspect of the imagery’s role. According to Macinnis and Price (1987), the role of imagery, in general, has to do with understanding and learning, imagery is a conceptually distinct way of representing information, a way that is “very like picturing and very unlike describing” (Macinnis & Price, 1987). Besides that, the respondents also believe that the imagery used increases memorability with its clear message conveyed, this can promote effective conveying of awareness to the public, possibly making up for the lack of awareness.

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Fig. 5.11 Google Form survey result, question 13

On the contrary, there are aspects of having imageries that we should avoid such as the lack of simple and straightforward SOP-related visuals for the public. The respondents’ negative reactions as shown in Fig, 5.11 towards the overcomplicated and overcrowded layout show that these are the aspects to best avoid when creating a design to spread awareness to the public. It is important because understanding the contents of an SOP-related visual is the main communication between a viewer and the designer. Therefore, producing more effective imagery can help positively affect the audience’s mindset to abide by the SOP. Translating that to visuals in the pandemic, there are SOP-related visuals that act as visual communicators for the public to abide by the SOP regulations. From the survey, imagery is analyzed through the public’s eye, and opinions on imagery in visual communicators are split, whereas 55.4% of them believe that imagery allows a better understanding of a design’s content and the rest think they are too complicated and may blue the content of the design. In the end, executing the important aspect and presenting it to the public for a cause of awareness will be the ultimate way to fight the lack of it in our society.

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COLOUR The second important aspect of effective SOP-related visuals is the colour of the design, the effectiveness of colour is tested and explored in the current research survey to further understand the respondents’ behaviors and opinions towards colour in an SOP-related visual. According to PrintUK (2020), choosing the proper colour is critical in every design. The colour one choose is just as significant as the image or typeface. Because colours have various individual associations, it is the colour that draws attention or the other way around where the choice of colour can repel the viewers’ attention. This implies that colour is an important instrument for influencing the mindset of the public.

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Fig. 5.13 Google Form survey result, question 8

Fig. 5.12 Designs examples with imagery from MySejahtera

To better understand the survey respondents’ views on the familiar colours that are often seen, the examples in Fig 5.12 are taken from MySejahtera, a Malaysian app to detect and monitor one’s Covid-19 status by facilitating their contact and tracings. Based on the demographics, most of the respondents are Malaysians. Therefore using visuals from MySejahtera could allow better accuracy from the survey results, and by doing so, find the most effective way by which the colours can positively affect their mindset to abide by the SOP. With the examples shown, the likes and dislikes of the respondents will be gathered, and their reasons for answers will be dissected. With the image shown in Fig. 5.12, the respondents are asked about effective or ineffective communication to discover the best way colours should be conveyed in a pandemic design to spread awareness.

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Fig. 5.14 Google Form survey result, question 9

The chart shown in Fig. 5.13 shows how more than 80% of the respondents think that the information in Fig 5.12 was conveyed with the use of colours, while the remaining 16.2% do not think so. From this, it is clear that most of the respondents think of colours in an SOP-related visual as useful to convey information. This can confirm the respondents’ acknowledgment of colours when conveying information through a design, making it no less significant but rather equally as important, if not more, than imagery. Discovering the important aspects of colour could help better the visual outcome of awareness-spreading designs during the pandemic.

When asked what aspects of the colours made them feel most connected to the design, 64.3% of the respondents agree (refer to Fig 5.14) that the appropriate colours used in the images are shown as a factor of the clearly conveyed information as the usage of appropriate colours can influence the meaning of a text, how users move around a particular layout, and what they feel as they do so (Cartwright, 2021). Not only that, but the respondents also agree that the colours used allow a better understanding of the content. From that, it is clear that the appropriate colours are used to allow a better understanding of the content, and they are therefore important to increase the effectiveness of the message being conveyed to the public.

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SOP-RELATED VISUAL: Raising awareness with visual communicatioN Visual communication Fig. 5.15 Google Form survey result, question 10

On the contrary, there are aspects of having colours in an awareness-spreading design that should be avoided such as the unclear message portrayed as well as the hard-to-read oversaturated colours. The respondents’ negative reactions as shown in Fig 5.15 towards the MySejahtera design show that these are the aspects to best avoid when creating a design to spread awareness to the public. It is important because understanding the contents of an SOP-related visual is the main communication between a viewer and the designer. Therefore, choosing the most effective aspects of the colour can help positively affect the audience’s mindset to abide by the SOP. Translating that to visuals in the pandemic, there are SOP-related visuals that act as visual communicators for the public to abide by the SOP regulations. From the survey, colours are analyzed through the public’s eye, and opinions on colours in visual communicators are split, whereas a portion of them believes that imagery is used appropriately in a design’s content and the rest think they are too complicated and may blue the content of the design. In the end, executing the important aspect and presenting it to the public for a cause of awareness will be the ultimate way to fight the lack of it in our society.

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According to Info Graphic Design Team (2019), visual communication is a form of signs, typefaces, graphic design, images, fine art, marketing, motion graphics, and electronic resources are all forms of visual elements used to transmit ideas and information. Since prehistoric times, humans have employed visual communication (Wikipedia, 2022). It is the fundamental purpose of design, to communicate a message to the viewer. For this research, ways of visual communication in times of the pandemic are analyzed in order to spread awareness and educate the public. In a way spreading the message of awareness to make up for the current lack of awareness in our society. Through communication between the viewer and the designer, better solutions can be discovered to help evoke the connection between the message and the awareness. Through the findings of this research, ways of improving the important aspects of visuals such as the strong and weak imagery and colours are analysed and concluded in hope of succumbing to the hurdle of an awareness-lacking society.

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Strong vs weak SOP-related visuals To test the hypothesis that graphic design as a visual communicator impactful design choices is a valuable method of conveying a message, the relevancy of the good and bad SOP-related visuals is to be discussed in this section. This would eventually lead to the most effective way graphics and visuals could positively affect the audience’s mindset to abide by the SOP, and to find answers to this question, the strong and weak visuals of designs are discussed in that section. From the findings in the survey conducted, as well as from the discussion sections, strong visuals are those with straightforward imagery and appropriate colours, whereas weak visuals are the ones with overcomplicated imagery and colours. The effectiveness of imagery and colours are the two main aspects focused on and discussed. This section will help to further understand the topic of imagery and colour as a whole, by comparing the good and weak, and how it affects the public to abide by the SOP.

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Fig. 5.16 Strong representations of SOP-related visuals

Fig. 5.17 Strong representations of SOP-related visuals

From the findings, image examples of both good and weak representations of imagery and colours are presented, and the results varied. Imagery as a visual communicator is voted as impactful due to its ability to allow a better understanding of the content. While the appropriate use of colours made an impact on the respondents, they have been affected both positively and negatively. One respondent who agrees that colours should be made straightforward says “Avoid using too many colours as it resulted in complication, the main focus would be diminished”. Another respondent who commented on the important aspect of colours said “Perhaps appropriate use of colours that would grab the attention of viewers” From here, a mass of respondents agree on the impact good colours used could bring. 96

Fig. 5.17 Percentages of respondents for their opinions on the effectiveness of imageries and colours through the images shown in Fig. 5.1, colours (left) imagery (right) Fig. 5.18 Badly-designed poster

On the contrary, a combination of 24.8% of the respondents prefer visuals that are easier to understand and comprehend, instead of an impactful design, they believe that both imagery and colours should be simple as well as straightforward for a more effective SOP-related visual for the public. Although the results varied where there is a clear majority in the research findings, it is important to note that the respondents on the other side of the argument could depict and represent the current point of view of some people in our society. According to Günay (2021), visual communication is applied in all activity areas of daily life and this situation has become highly important. Despite its importance, we should all refrain from over-consumption of design pollution over various media, and users should be more aware of the issue to avoid being affected over time (Günay, 2021).

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This point relates to our current research question two as although the most effective way stated in the findings is to use impactful imagery and colors, too much is never good for the mass public. Therefore not properly conveying the important message that could positively affect the audience’s mindset to abide by the SOP. In this topic, discoveries were made from the observation of good and weak SOP-related visuals ratio. As dependable members of Malaysian society, people are encouraged to occupy their thoughts with good SOP-related visuals instead of polluted designs with no effect on the audience’s mindset regarding SOP.

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CONCLUSION

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This research sought to identify the way visuals in design can create SOP awareness and educate the public about Covid-19. To do that, the most effective way that visual communication in graphics and visuals could positively affect the audience’s mindset is researched, not only that is also knowing that doing this will suffice the current lack of awareness in our society. By bringing forward the findings from secondary research, it helped to form the foundation when designing the primary research method which is a questionnaire, the accumulated information is conducive to the solutions to the current research problem. This questionnaire that was designed for a survey was open for 2 weeks and over 81 respondents were recorded. The two main aspects of effective SOP-related visuals were analyzed, and from the findings, imagery and colors are focused on. Their most important and effective aspects were eventually concluded to help discover the best way the public could respond to an SOP-created design. Finally, analysis on using the findings to spread awareness among the public during the pandemic is analyzed, the strong and weak SOP-related visuals are focused on to conclude the most effective way to make up for the lack of awareness in our society, during the pandemic. This part summarises the findings from the discussion section. The analysis and discussion section

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aims to answer the research questions which can be seen first in section 5.1.1 where it is concluded that visual communication during the pandemic is a key weapon to fighting and stopping the spread of the disease by changing the mindset of the public. This confirmed the importance of visual communication for the current research problem. Following that, using the criteria of strong and weak imagery as well as colour in an SOP-related design, the likes and dislikes of the respondents shows clearly the interest they had for the designs with stronger use of imagery and colours in an SOP-related design whereas uninterest in the weaker designs. This upholds the statement that impactful designs are important and make a difference, and it is rather thriving and thus far still effective at spreading awareness that positively affects the audience’s mindset to abide by the SOP. Next, the main aspects of effective SOP-related visuals, imagery, and colours in an SOP-related design are analyzed and concluded to answer the research questions. Where the focus is on imagery, it is concluded that imagery allows better understanding of the design’s content while the rest thinks if they are too complicated, it blue the content of the design. The same goes to colours on an SOP-related design, respondents think that the appropriate colours used in the images are shown as a factor of the clearly conveyed information. In the end, executing the important aspect and presenting it to the

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public for a cause of awareness will be the ultimate way to fight the lack of it in our society. Where the aspect of raising awareness with visual communication through SOP-related visual is discussed, it is concluded the respondents prefer visuals that are easier to understand and comprehend. Along with the previous discussions, it is stated in the findings that the most effective way is to use impactful imagery and colors, however, too much is never good for the mass public as it can not properly convey the important message that could positively affect the audience’s mindset to abide by the SOP.

Finally, to suggest future research from this research, it is hoped to branch out with the gathered information from this research to start design projects that are related and helpful to society. With the information gathered, design projects such as the ones that aim to assist the Covid-19 epidemic can be improved and fixed to the public’s interest, thus better helping the cause by effectively spreading awareness. For example, design projects such as posters, flyers, social media posts, and many more. The research has granted one the opportunity to advocate for an important cause in this day and time, therefore, it should be pushed for execution whenever needed.

To conclude the discussion above, graphic design as a visual communicator is discussed to discover its capability during the pandemic as well as what designs are impactful and important in order to assist. Not just that, it is concluded that impactful imageries and appropriate colours are effective when applied in a sop-related design, aiming to spread awareness and educate the public. Throughout the research, there were limitations faced as only selected and specific designs were studied, exploring every few design styles when conducting the questionnaire. This led to insufficient dissected information which when brought over to discussion, was lacking for an extensive discussion section.

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Appendix

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Appendix A

Google Form survey: Multiple Choice Questions

Google Form survey: Description page

Fig. 9.1 Screenshot of Google Form survey (Description page)

Google Form survey: General Questions

Fig. 9.3 Screenshot of Google Form survey (Multiple-choice questions page)

Google Form survey: Short Answer Questions

Fig. 9.4 Screenshot of Google Form survey (Short answer questions page) Fig. 9.2 Screenshot of Google Form survey (General questions page)

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