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temI-Z¿i\߃: Nm¿hmI≥ apX¬ am¿Ivkv hsc

lokadarsanangal: charvakan muthal marx vare p s poozhanadu first edition may 2011 second edition march 2017 second impression january 2021 typesetting & published chintha publishers, thiruvananthapuram printed repro india ltd, mumbai cover midas price rupees one hundred and fifty only

Rights reserved

hnX-cWw

tZim-`n-am\n _p°v lukv H O Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cw-˛695 035 phone: 0471-2303026, 6063026 www.chinthapublishers.com [email protected] {_m©p-Iƒ slÕm-^okv {_m©v Ip∂p-Ipgn ÃmNyp Xncp-h\ - ¥ - ] - pcw sI Fkv B¿ Sn kn _kv tÃj≥ Be-∏p-g sI Fkv B¿ Sn kn _kv tÃj≥ Fd-Wm-Ip-fw a®n-߬ sebv≥ Xriq¿ sF Pn tdmUv tImgnt°m-Sv amhq¿ tdmUv tImgn-t°mSv F≥ Pn H bqWn-b≥ _n¬UnMv IÆq¿ sk≥{S¬ _kv sS¿an-\¬ tImwπIvkv Xmh-°c IÆq¿

CR - VV. 96 / 1634 / 4159 ISBN - 978-81-26206-86-5

temI-Z¿i\߃: Nm¿hmI≥ apX¬ am¿Ivkv hsc

]n F-kv -]q-g-\mSv

Nn¥ ]ªntjgvkv Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cw-˛695 035

hne :

150

]n Fkv ]qg-\mSv 1977 ¬ P\\w aX-c-ln-X≥. ]ptcm-K-a\ Iem-km-ln-Xy-kw-L-Øn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p. `mcy hnemkw

t^m¨

: kuay Fw B¿ : apXn-b≥ aÆSn hoSv IS-ºd ]qg-\mSv ]n H Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw : 9995780859

D≈S°w XXz-Nn¥-bpsS Bhn¿`mhw

9

C¥y≥ XXz-Nn-¥-bpsS IcpØv 13 Nm¿hm-I≥ _p≤≥ ssP\≥ ssN\okv XXz-Nn¥ 21 emthmXvsk I¨^yq-jykv sa≥jykv {Kokpw XXz-Nn-¥bpw 27 sXbn¬kv A\mIvknam≥U¿ A\m-Ivkn-sa-\kv ss]X-tKm-dkv ]m¿a-ss\Uvkv slcm¢n-‰kv Fw]n-tUm-¢nkv A\-Ivk-tKm-dkv sUtam-{In-‰kv tkm{I-´okv tπt‰m

Acn-tÃm-´n¬ Utbm-P-\nkv skt\m F∏n-°yq-dkv tπm´n-\kv a[y-Im-e-L-´hpw XXz-Nn-¥bpw 62 B≥kvew A_n-em¿Uv tXmakv AIzn-\mkv Atd-_y≥ Nn¥-bpsS sIm-Sp-¶m‰v 68 A¬In¥n A¬^dm_n C_v\p- ko\ (A-hn-sk-\) C_v\p dqjvZv (A-h-tdm-kv) Zm¿i-\nI hnNmcw: \thm-∞m\w apX¬ am¿Ivkv hsc 81 sZ°m¿sØ kv]nt\mk en_v\nXvkv tPm¨ tem°v tPm¿Pv _¿Iven tUhnUv lyqw CΩm-\p-h¬ Im‚ v -sl-K¬ s^mb¿_mlv am¿Ivkpw XXz-Nn-¥bpw 108 d^-d≥kv 118

XXz-Nn¥ hnNn-{Xhpw t¢i-I-c-hp-amb kwKXn-bm-sW∂ hym]-I-amb ap≥hn-[nsb C√m-bva-sN-tø-≠Xv A\n-hmcy-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ˛A-t‚m-Wntbm {Kmwjn

1 XXz-Nn¥-bpsS Bhn¿`mhw R߃ \ns∂ D‰p-t\m-°p-∂p, \ns‚ klmbw tNmZn°p-∂p. A√tbm XXz-im-kv{X-ta, Pohn-X-Øns‚ {[ph\-£-{X-ta, \ns∂-°q-SmsX R߃s°-∂√ a\p-jy-Pohn-X-Øn-\p-Xs∂ \ne-\n¬°m-\m-hn√. kn-ktdm

XXz-im-kv{X-Øns‚ thcp-Iƒ tXSp-tºmƒ \Ωƒ sNs∂-Øp∂Xv {]mNo\ a\p-jy-cpsS Pohn-Xm-h-ÿ-I-fn-te°m-Wv. {]mNo-\-a\p-jy-cpsS A[zm-\_ - ‘ - ß - f - n¬\n∂pw {]Ir-Xn-tbm-Sp≈ \nc-¥c - a - mb ka-c-ß-fn¬\n∂pw ka-c-k-s∏-S-ep-I-fn¬ \n∂p-amWv XXz-Nn-¥-bpsS BZy \mºp-Iƒ s]m´nsØ-dn°p-∂-Xv. kz¥w Pohn-Xm-\p-`-h-ßsf kt¥m-j-a-b-am-°nb {]Ir-Xn-{]-Xn-`m-k-ßsf Ah¿ AXym-Àm-ZtØmsS A`n-hmZyw sNbvXp. F∂m¬ Xßsf t]Sn-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw A¶-em-∏n-em-°p-Ibpw Xßfn¬ thZ-\-Iƒ IpØn-\n-d-bv°p-Ibpw sNbvX PohnX]cn-kc-ßsf kzbw a\-kn-em-°mt\m adn-I-S-°mt\m Ah-¿°m-bn-√. Aßs\ ssZh-ß-fpw ]nim-Np-°fpw Ahs‚ Xet®m-dp-Isf IpØn-∏n-f¿∂p. CØcw Pohn-X-]-cn-k-c-߃°n-S-bn¬h®v Ah¿ XXz-Nn-¥-bpsS BZy-cq-]-߃°v ASn-Ø-d-bn-Sm≥ XpS-ßn. temI-sØ-°p-dn-®p≈ s]mXp-ho-£-W-Øns‚ BZy-cq-]-߃ Gdn-bI - qdpw aXm-flI - a - m-bn-cp-∂p. {]Ir-Xn-tbm-Sp≈ a√n-Se - n¬ XI¿∂phoW {]mNo-\-a-\p-jy-cpsS \n -lm-b-X-bn¬\n∂pw \nKq-V-amb {]IrXn-i-‡n-I-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ Ah-cpsS `oXn-bn¬\n-∂p-amWv CØcw ho£-W-߃ DS-se-Sp-Ø-Xv. {]IrXn-tbm-Sp≈ Xß-fpsS _‘-sØ-

10

temIZ¿i\߃: Nm¿hm-I≥ apX¬ am¿Ivkv hsc ]n Fkv ]qg-\mSv

°p-dn®pw AXn-t\m-Sp≈ B{in-XX - z-sØ-°p-dn®pw {]mNo-\a - \ - p-jy¿°p≠m-bn-cp-∂Xv hnI-e-amb [mc-W-I-fm-bn-cp-∂p. {]Ir-Xn-bpsS apºnep≈ Xß-fpsS \n -lm-b-Xsb AXn-ssh-Im-cn-I-ambpw AXn-Im¬∏\n-I-hp-am-bmWv Ah¿ Ah-X-cn-∏n-®-Xv. {]mNo\ Iayq¨ hyh-ÿ-bn¬\n∂pw h¿Khn-`-Pn-X-amb ASn-ahy-h-ÿ-bn-te°v kaqlw ]cn-h¿Øn-®-t∏mƒ \nKq-V-amb {]]-©i- ‡ n- I - f psS ap∂n- s e- ∂ - t ]mse kmaq- l ym- [ n- I m- c - i - ‡ n- I - f psS apºnepw Ah\v ap´p-Ip-tØ-≠n-h-∂p. Cusbmcp kmaqly]cn-kcØp-h-®mWv Gsd-°psd ka-{K-amb temI-ho-£W-sa∂ \nebv°v XXz-Nn¥ DS-se-Sp-°p-∂-Xv. ASnaØ-hy-hÿ hnI-kn-°p-Ibpw am\-kn-Im-[zm\w imco-cn-Im[zm-\-Øn¬\n∂v th¿Xn-cn-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw `c-W-Iq-S-߃ s]m¥n-h-cnIbpw sNbvX-tXmsS a\p-jy-cpsS ]gb k¶-¬∏\-ß-fnepw ImgvN∏m-Sp-I-fnepw {ItaW am‰-߃ {]I-S-am-Im≥ XpS-ßn. apºv {]]-©i-‡n-I-fpsS aq¿Øo-I-c-W-sa∂ coXn-bn¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°-s∏´ ssZhß-fn¬ kmaq-lym[n-Imci-‡n-I-fpsS e£-W-ßfpw Iq´n-t®¿°-s∏´p. {]m]-©n-I-i-‡n-I-fpsS Zp¿{Km-ly-Xbpw `oj-Wn-Ifpw AtX Afhn¬ kmaq-ly-m[nImci-‡n-I-fnepw Ah\v A\p-`-h-s∏-Sm≥ XpS-ßn. {]m]-©n-I-i-‡n-I-fpsS \nKq-V-X-Ifpw kmaq-ly-m[nImc-i-‡n-I-fpsS apºn-ep≈ \n¿_-‘nX Iog-S-ßepw Imcy-ßsf IqSp-X¬ k¶o¿Wam-°n. \o BcmWv? F¥mWv a\p-jy≥? ssZhw F¥mWv? ssZhapt≠m? ac-W-Øn-\p-tijw Pohn-X-apt≠m? Bflm-hpt≠m? temIw Fhn-sS-\n-∂mWv cq]wsIm≠Xv? Cu BImiw Fßs\ D≠mbn? acWw Fß-s\-bp-≠mbn? tNmZy-ß-fpsS Hcp alm-{]-hmlw IpØnsbm-en-®p-h-cn-I-bm-Wv. F¥n-\mWv \mw ChnsS Pohn-°p-∂Xv? Cu {]]-©hpw `qanbpw Pohn-Xhpw Fß-s\-bp-≠mbn? tNmZy-߃ Ahkm-\n-°msX \ofp-I-bm-Wv. temIw ssZh-ln-X-Øns‚ km£m¬°m-c-am-sW∂pw ssZh-ßfmWv temI-Øns‚ {kjvSm-°-sf∂pw Cl-tem-I-Po-hnXw \iz-c-amsW∂pw Bflmhpw ]c-tem-I-Po-hn-X-hp-amWv A\-iz-c-am-bn-´p-≈sX∂pw Hcp-hn-`mKw Nn¥-I¿ {]N-cn-∏n-°m\pw kn≤m-¥-߃ BhnjvI-cn-°m\pw XpS-ßn. Ah¿ Gdn-b-Iqdpw cmPm°∑mcp-sSbpw ASna-bp-S-a-I-fmb htc-Wy-h¿KØn-t‚bpw \mSp-hm-gvN-bv°v -Zn-hyXzw I¬∏n-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-Ibpw ASn-a-ØsØ ]mSn-∏p-I-gvØp-Ibpw sNbvXp. {]]©-sØbpw temI-sØbpw Ipdn-®p≈ Bi-b-hm-Z-ho£W-߃ Aßs\ kPo-h-amIm≥ XpS-ßn. Irjn-bp-sSbpw Pe-tk-N-\-Øn-s‚bpw hf¿®, sI´n-S-\n¿am-W{]-h¿Ø-\w, ssIsØm-gn¬, I®-h-Sw XpS-ßn-bp≈ D¬∏m-Z-\-hn-X-c-

temI-Z¿i\߃: Nm¿hm-I≥ apX¬ am¿Ivkv hsc ]n Fkv ]qg-\mSv

11

W-im-J-I-fpsS Bhn¿`m-hhpw hf¿®bpw; KWn-X-im-kv{Xw, tPymXnimkv{Xw, _e-X-{¥w, ck-X-{¥w, ]Zm¿Y-kw-kvI-c-WhnZy F∂nßs\bp≈ hnhn-[ -hn-⁄m-\-afie-ßsf ]pjvSn-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw {]kvXpX hn⁄m-\-ß-fp-sSbpw hnh-c-ß-fp-sSbpw kam-l-cWØn\pw t{ImUo- I - c - W - Ø n\pw hgn- s X- f n- b n- ° p- I bpw sNbv X p. Cßs\ imkv{Xo-b-]-cn-⁄m-\-Øn-s‚bpw D¬∏m-Z-\-i‡n-I-fpsS hnIm-k-Øns‚bpw CS-߃ h¿[n-®-tXmsS {]]-©-sØbpw kaqlsØ-bpw- Ipdn-®p≈ `uXn-I-hm-Z-ho-£-W-ßfpw apf-s]m-´m≥ XpS-ßn. htc-Wyh¿K-Xm¬∏-cy-Øn-s\-Xn-scbpw \ne-hn-ep≈ cmjv{So-b-˛-km-º-Øn-Im[n-]-Xy-Øn-s\-Xn-scbpw ASn-a-Ø-bp-K-Ønse ]ptcm-K-a-\-i-‡n-Iƒ \S-Ønb t]mcm-´-ßtfm-sSm∏w `uXn-I-hm-Z-ho-£-Whpw DPz-e-am-Im≥ XpS-ßn. H∏w `uXn-I-hm-Z-tem-I-ho-£-W-Øns‚ \ne-]m-Sp-Isf sh´n∏n-f¿°m≥ bmYm-ÿn-Xn-I-{]-am-Wn-am¿ Bi-b-hm-ZsØ Ah-cpsS Bbp-[-am-°m\pw Bcw-`n-®p. `uXn-I-hm-Zhpw Bi-b-hm-Zhpw XΩnep≈ temI-ho-£-W-]-c-amb Bi-bk-acw C∂pw XpS-cp-I-bm-Wv. \ap-°p- Np-‰p-ap≈ hkvXp-°-sfbpw {]Xn-`m-k-ß-sfbpw {]{Inb-I-sfbpw kq£va-ambn ]cn-tim-[n-®m¬ `uXn-I-sa∂pw Bi-b-]-csa∂pw Ahsb \ap°v c≠p-X-c-Øn¬ th¿Xn-cn-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. {]]©w, `qan, hyXy-kvX-ß-fmb ssPh-˛-`u-Xn-I-˛-km-aq-ly-{]-Xn-`mk-߃ XpS-ßn-bh `uXn-I-am-Wv. F∂m¬ Nn¥-Iƒ hnIm-c-߃ XpS-ßn-bh Bi-b-]cw AYhm Bflo-b-am-Wv. AXm-bXv a\p-jys‚ t_m[-Øns‚ B{i-b-an-√msX kzX-{¥-amb AkvXn-Xz-tØmsS hkvXp-\n-jvT-ambn \ne-sIm-≈p-∂h `uXn-I-am-Wv. F∂m¬ a\pjys‚ t_m[-Øn¬am{Xw \ne-\n¬°m≥ Ign-bp-∂Xpw kzX{¥-amb AkvXn-Xz-an-√m-ØXpw Bfl-\n-jvT-ambn am{Xw \ne-sIm-≈p-∂-Xpw Bi-b-]-c-am-Wv. AXm-b-Xv, H∂p-In¬ `uXn-Itam As√¶n¬ Bib-]-ctam A√mØ bmsXm∂pw Cu `qap-JØv \ne-hn-en-s√-∂¿Yw. `uXn-I-am-b-hbpw Bi-b-]-c-am-bhbpw hyXykvX bmYm¿Yyß-fm-sW-¶nepw Ah Hcn-°epw sh≈w Ib-dmØ hyXykvX AdI-fn-e√ AS-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Ah XΩn¬ ]c-kv]cw _‘-s∏-´mWv \ne- s Im- ≈ p- ∂ - X v . AXm- b Xv ]Zm¿Yhpw t_m[hpw XΩn- e p≈ _‘w. Cu _‘-Øn-emWv XXz-im-kv{X-Øns‚ auen-I-{]-tabw IpSn-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv. ]Zm¿YamtWm {]mY-anIw AtXm t_m[-amtWm {]mY-anIw F∂ auenI {]ta-b-am-Wv XXz-im-kv{X-Øns‚ temIho-£W-sØ \n›-bn-°p-∂- H∂m-asØ LS-Iw. temIw t⁄bamtWm AtXm At⁄-b-amtWm (A-Xm-bXv a\p-jy-a-\-kn\v Np‰p]m-Sp-ap≈ temIsØ Adn-bm\pw AXns‚ hnIm-k-\n-b-a-߃ Is≠Øm\pw Ign-bptam AtXm C√tbm) F∂ auen-I-{]-ta-b-amWv XXz-

12

temIZ¿i\߃: Nm¿hm-I≥ apX¬ am¿Ivkv hsc ]n Fkv ]qg-\mSv

im- k v { X- Ø ns‚ temI- h o- £ - W sØ \n›- b n- ° p∂ c≠m- a sØ LSIw. ]Zm¿Yw AYhm {]Ir-Xn-bmWv {]mY-an-I-sa∂pw t_m[w ZznXobhpw `uXn-I-amb AkvXn-XzsØ B{i-bn-®p-am{Xw \n¬°p-∂-Xpam-sW∂pw `uXn-I-hm-Zn-Ifmb XXz-Nn-¥-I¿ {]Jym-]n-°p-∂p. `uXnI-hm-Zn-I-fpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ ]Zm¿Yw imiz-X-am-Wv. Hcp s]m∂pX-ºp-cm\pw krjvSn-®-X√ AXv. {]Ir-Xym-Xo-X-i-‡n-Itfm Znhy-i‡n-Itfm Cuiz-c-∑mtcm H∂p-an-s√∂v `uXn-I-hm-Zn-Iƒ {]Jym]n°p∂p. ]Zm¿Y-Øns‚ Ncn-{X-]-c-amb hnIm-k-Øns‚ D¬∏-∂-amWv t_m[w. a\p-jys‚ Bhn¿`m-h-tØmsS Bhn¿`-hn-®Xpw Ncn-{X-tØmsSm∏w hnI-kn-°p-∂-Xp-amb H∂mWv t_m[w. AtXm-sSm∏w temIw t⁄b-am-sW∂pw `uXn-I-hm-Zn-Iƒ Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂p. X\n-°p- Np-‰pap≈ temI-Ønse hkvXp-°-tfbpw {]Xn-`m-k-ß-tfbpw {]{In-b-Itfbpw hkvXp-\n-jvT-ambn a\-kn-em-°m-\p≈ Ignhv a\p-jy-a-\-kn\ps≠∂pw Ah¿ Xncn-®-dnbp∂p. F∂m¬ t_m[-amWv {]mY-an-I-sa-∂mWv Bi-b-hm-Zn-Iƒ ]dbp-∂-Xv. Ah-cpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ t_m[-sa-∂Xv ]Zm¿YsØ B{ibn-°msX \ne\n¬°p∂ Hcp kzX-{¥-km-[-\-am-Wv. Cu t_m[-amWv Cu temIsØ krjvSn-®Xpw AXns\ \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xpw. t_m[w Fß-s\-bmWv temIsØ krjvSn-°p-∂Xv F∂-Xn\v hy‡-amb adp]Sn Bi-b-hm-Zn-Iƒ \¬Ip-∂p-an-√. DØ-c-߃°v Ah¿ ssZhsØ icWw {]m]n-°p-I-bmWv sNøp-∂-Xv. a\p-jy-a-\-kn\v temIsØ Adn-bmt\m hymJym-\n-°mt\m am‰n-Øo¿°mt\m km[y-a-s√-∂mWv Bi-b-hm-Zn-I-fpsS \ne-]m-Sv. AXp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂-bmWv Ncn-{X-Øns‚ kaq¿ØL´-ß-fn¬ Nqj-I-h¿KØns‚ Bbp-[-ambn Bi-b-hmZw A[x-]-Xn-°p-∂-Xpw. XXz-im-kv{X-hn-Nm-c-ß-fpsS Ncn-{X-sa-∂Xv h¿Kk-a-c-N-cn-{XØns‚ `mKw Xs∂-bm-Wv. Bi-b-cw-KØp \S-°p∂ / \S-∂p-sIm≠n-cn-°p∂ h¿Kk-a-c-Øns‚ Xo£vW-X-bn¬ h®mWv XXz-im-kv{XsØbpw a\-kn-em-t°-≠-Xv.

temI-Z¿i\߃: Nm¿hm-I≥ apX¬ am¿Ivkv hsc ]n Fkv ]qg-\mSv

13

2 C¥y≥ XXz-Nn-¥-bpsS IcpØv C¥y-bn¬ Ct∏mƒ \ne-\n¬°p∂ A[n-Im-c-s]m-Xp-t_m[w \tΩmSv \nc-¥cw Bh-iy-s∏-´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂Xv C¥y-sb-∂Xv Bflo-b-X-bpsS kz¥w \mSm-sW∂v hniz-kn-°m-\m-Wv. B[n-]Xyw ]pe¿Øp∂ Cu s]mXp-t_m-[sØ \nc-¥cw ]n¥p-W®pw ]n≥]‰nbpw sIm≠mWv C¥y≥ `c-W-Iq-S-Øns‚ F√m-hn[ {]Xy-bimkv{X D]-I-c-W-ßfpw k÷o-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈Xv. {_n´ojv sImtfmWn-b-en-Ãp-Ifpw kh¿W Xºp-cm-°-∑mcpw C¥y≥ a\-kp-I-fn-te°v CSn-®p-Ib - ‰ - nb Cu BflobhmZ- an-Øns\ XI¿°pI F∂Xv C¥y≥ s]mXp-t_m-[-Øns‚ ]ptcm-K-a-\-h-¬°-c-W-Øn\v A\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. {]mNo\ C¥y A‘-hn-izm-k-ß-fp-sSbpw A\m-Nm-c-ß-fpsSbpw \oXn-tI-Sn-s‚bpw tIh-e-amb Hcp Ccn-∏nSw am{X-am-bn-cp-∂n-√; adn®v F√m A\o-Xn-Iƒs°-Xn-scbpw {]kvXpX Ncn-{X-Im-e-L-´-Øns‚ ]cnan-Xn-Iƒ°p-≈n¬ \n∂p-sIm≠v Xf-cmsX ]S-sh-´nb hen-sbmcp P\k-aqlhpw C¥y-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. bmK-∏p-c-I-sfbpw b⁄-Ø-d-Isfbpw BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\-ß-sfbpw Iqkm-Ø Hcp Din-c≥ kaqlw \ap-°p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. h¿Khn-`-Pn-Xhpw H∏w PmXn-hn-`-Pn-X-hp-amb Hcp {Iqc-km-aq-ln-I-]-cn-k-c-Øn¬ \n∂p-sIm-≠mWv Cs∂-∂-t]mse A∂pw a\p-jy-cmb a\p-jy¿ apgp-h≥ t]mcm-Sn-b-Xv. A[n-Im-chpw kºØpw Adnhpw IpØ-I-bm-°n -h®v taem-f-h¿Kw _lp-`q-cn-]£w hcp∂ A[zm-\n-°p∂ P\-Xsb Nhn-´n-sa-Xn-°p-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂p. Cu Nhn´n-sa-Xn-°-en\v Ah¿°v Bi-b-]-c-amb Bbp-[-߃ kΩ-m\n-®Xv thZ-ßfpw D]-\n-j-Øp-Ifpw `K-h-XvKo-Xbpw cmam-b-Whpw Hs°bmWv. Cu Bi-b-]-c-amb a¿ZI- D-]-I-c-W-߃s°-Xn-sc-bmWv

14

temIZ¿i\߃: Nm¿hm-I≥ apX¬ am¿Ivkv hsc ]n Fkv ]qg-\mSv

C¥y≥ Z¿i-\-Øns‚ Icp-Øp-I-fmb Nm¿hm-I\pw I]n-e\pw IWmZ\pw _p≤\pw ssP\\pw Hs° t]mcm-Sn-b-Xv. thZ-ßfpw D]-\n-jØp-Ifpw `K-h-ZvKo-Xbpw cmam-b-Whpw Hs° apt∂m-´p-h® Bi-bhmZ/Cuizc \ne-]m-Sp-Isf A[zm-\n-°p∂ a\p-jys‚ {]Xy-b-imkv { X- [ m- c - b mb `uXn- I - h mZ/\nco- i zc Imgv N ∏mSns‚ Icp- Ø n¬ \n∂psIm-≠mWv Nm¿hm-I\pw _p≤\pw ssP\\pw sh√p-hn-fn-®-Xv. C -Fw -Fkv Fgp-Xp∂p: `K-h-XvKo-X-bpsS I¿Ømhpw _p≤\pw C¥y-bnse aXm-Nmcy-∑m-cmbn \q‰m-≠p-I-tfmfw Imew P\-߃ IW-°m-°n-h∂p. F∂m¬ aXm-Nm-cy-∑m¿ F∂ \ne-bn¬ Ch¿°p≈ ÿm\w {]mNo-t\-¥y-bn¬ cq]-s∏-´p-h∂ h¿K (h¿W) kaql-Øn-se hncp-≤-i-‡n-I-fpsS h‡m-°-sf-∂m-bn-cp-∂p. {]mNo\-{Ko-knepw tdmanepw \ne-hn¬h∂ cq]-Øn-ep≈ ASn-a-Øhy-hÿ {]mNo-t\-¥y-bn¬ hf¿∂p-h-∂n-´n-s√∂v Ncn-{X-Im-c∑m¿ a\-kn-em-°p-∂p. F∂m¬ ASn-a-Ø-hy-hÿ (Nm-Xp¿h¿Wyw)tb°mƒ H´pw Im¿-°iyw Ipd-bmØ Hcp hyh-ÿ ChnsS cq]-s∏-´p. ASn-a-Ø-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ F∂-t]mse NmXp¿h¿Wy-Ønepw a¿ZIcpw Nqj-Icpw Hcp `mKØv a¿Zn-Xcpw Nqjn-Xcpw adp`mKØv, F∂ coXn-bn-ep≈ tNcn-Xn-cnhv h∂p. AXn¬ a¿ZI-cp-sSbpw Nqj-I-cp-sSbpw h‡m-hm-bn-cp∂p KoXmIm-c≥. _p≤-\m-Is´ a¿Zn-X-scbpw Nqjn-X-scbpw {]Xn-\n-[m\w -sN-bvXp. (-C -Fw -F-kns‚ Ub-dn) \ΩpsS Ncn{Xw \n¿Z-b-amb ASn-®-a¿Ø-ep-I-fp-sSbpw AXn-s\Xn-sc-bp≈ [oc-t]m-cm-´-ß-fpsSbpw Ncn-{X-am-Wv. t]mcm-´-߃ ]et∏mgpw Nhn-´n-b-c-bv°-s∏-´p. Cu Nhn-´n-b-c-bv°-ep-Iƒ BZy-Im-e-ßfn¬ Imbn-I-am-bn-´m-bn-cp-∂p. CØcw Imbn-I-amb Nhn-´n-b-c-bv°-epI-fn¬ \n∂pw AXn-\-\p-tbm-Py-amb {]Xy-b-imkv{X Bbp-[-ßfpw cq]-s∏-´p. Nhn-t´‰v hoW-h\pw sNdp-Øp-\n¬t°-≠n-h-∂p. AXn-Kw`o-c-amb CØcw sNdpØp\n¬∏p-I-fn¬\n∂pw AXn-\-\p-tbm-Py-amb AXn-aq¿—-tb-dnb {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-ßfpw cq]w-sIm-≠p. F∂m¬ A[nImcw Iøm-fnb h¿Kw sNdp-Øp-\n¬∏p-I-sf-bpw AXns‚ {]Xy-bim-kv{X-ß-sfbpw Nps´-cn-®p-I-f-™p. t]mcm-fn-bmb Nm¿hm-Is\ taem-f-∑m¿ Xobn-en´v Np´p-I-cn-°pI am{X-a√ sNbvXXv; At±-lØns‚ XXz-im-kv{X-ßsf Icn-®p-I-f-bp-Ibpw NneXv ssI°-em-°pIbpw sNbvXp. a\phpw `K-h-ZvKo-Xbpw i¶-cm-Nm-cycpw C∂pw C¥y≥ a\-kpI-fn¬ F√mhn[ At\z-jWßsfbpw ASn-®p-X-I¿Øp-sIm≠v {]Xyb-imkv{Xm[n-]Xyw \ne-\n-¿-Øp-I-bm-Wv. hnZym-k-º-∂-sc∂v kzbw

temI-Z¿i\߃: Nm¿hm-I≥ apX¬ am¿Ivkv hsc ]n Fkv ]qg-\mSv

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]d-bp-∂-h¿ t]mepw C¥y Bflo-b-X-bpsS am{Xw \mSm-sW∂v ]pfIwsIm≈p-∂Xv AXp-sIm-≠m-Wv. C¥y≥ s]mXp-t_m-[-Øn¬ Bgv∂n-d-ßn-t∏mb "`mcXw Bflo-b-X-bpsS \mSmWv' F∂ sI´p-IYsb C∂pw \ap°v s]m´n-s®-dn-bm≥ Ign-bm-ØX - n-\p-Im-cWw kh¿W{]-Xy-b-imkv{Xw/{_m“-Wn-°¬ {]Xy-b-imkv{Xw C¥y≥ a\-kpIsf Bi-b-]-c-ambn ^mkn-Ãp-h-¬°-cn-®-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv. Cu kmwkvIm-cn-Im-[n-]-Xy-Øn-s\-Xn-sc-bp≈ t]mcm-´-Øn¬ Nm¿hm-I-s‚bpw _p≤-s‚bpw ssP\-s‚bpw XXz-im-kv{X-kw-`m-h-\-Iƒ Hgn-®p-Iq-Sm\m-hm-Ø-Xm-Wv.

Nm¿hm-I≥ sshZn-I-{]-Xy-b-im-kv{X-Øns‚ {Iqchpw a\p-jy-Xz-hn-cp-≤hp-amb A[n-Im-ci - ‡ - n-s°-Xnsc t]mcm-Snb, A[zm-\n-°p∂ a\p-jycpsS {]Xn\n-[n-I-fm-bn-cp∂p Nm¿h-I-∑m¿/temIm-b-X-∑m¿. a\p-jy¿ Pohn-°p∂ temI-Øns‚ {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-amWv Ah¿ {]Ncn-∏n-®-Xv. `qcn-]£w hcp∂ km[m-cW a\p-jy-cpsS XXz-im-kv{X-am-bn-cp∂p AXv. kXyw I≠p-]n-Sn-°m-\p≈ am¿Kw {]Xy-£-⁄m\w am{X-am-sW∂v AXv {]Jym-]n-®p. {]Xy-£-⁄m-\-Øn\p hnt[-b-a-√mØ bmsXm∂pw kXy-a-√. temIw am{X-amWv {]Xy-£-am-bn-´p-≈-Xv. AXp-sIm-≠v, temIw am{X-amWv kXy-sa∂v temIm-b-X-∑m¿ Din-tcmsS {]Jym-]n®p. `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-h¿KØns‚ Bflo-b-hm-Z-Øn\pw ]c-{_-“-Øn-\psa-Xn-sc-bp≈ Np´-a-dp-]-Sn-bp-am-bn-´mWv temIm-b-X∑m¿ cwK-Øp-h-cp∂-Xv. A[n-Imcnh¿K-Øns‚ kz¿K-sØbpw tam£-kn-≤m-¥-sØbpw ]c-tem-IsØ Bflm-hn-s\bpw temIm-b-X-∑m¿ Nhn-´nØ-I¿Øp. NmXp¿h¿Wy-Øn¬s∏Sp-∂-h-cpsS {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Akw-_-‘-ßfm-sW∂v sh´n-Øp-d-∂p-]-d-™p. A·n-tKm-{Xhpw thZ-ßfpw {Xn-iqew IpØepw `kvaw ]qiepw hn⁄m-\-iq-\y-∑m-cp-sSbpw a\p-jy-hn-tcm[n-I-fp-sSbpw Pohn-X-am¿Kw am{X-am-sW∂v Ah¿ {]Jym-]n-®p. bmK®S-ßn¬ sIm√-s∏-Sp∂ arKw t\sc kz¿KØn¬ t]mIp-sa-¶n¬ F¥psIm-≠mWv _en A¿∏n-°p-∂-h≥ kz¥w ]nXm-hns\ _en sImSp°m-ØXv? tZlw `kva-am-bm¬ ]ns∂ as‰mcp temI-Øn-te°v t]mIp∂-sX-ßs - \-bmWv? ico-cØ - n¬\n∂pw kzX-{¥-amb Hcm-flm-hp-s≠∂ hmZw X\n h¶-Ø-c-am-Wv. ac-W-tØm-Sp-IqSn F√mw Ah-km-\n-°p∂p. a\p-jy-sc-∏-‰n®p ]Ww X´m-\p≈ {_m“-Wm-[n-]-Xy-Øns‚ kq{X∏-Wn-I-fmWv bmK-ßfpw b⁄-ßfpw a‰pw. Nm¿hm-I-∑m¿ XpS-cp-∂p: {im≤-aq-´p-I-hgn acn-®p-t]mb BfpIƒ°v kwXr-]vXn-bp-≠m-Ip-sa-¶n¬, bm{X-bvs°m-cp-ßp∂ k©m-cnIƒ°p, bm{X-bv°n-Sbv°p Ign-°m≥ Blmcw sImSp-Øp-hn-tS-≠Xn-√t√m? ChnsS \mw {im≤w \S-Øp-∂-Xp-hgn kz¿KØnse Pohn-

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