Animal cells

Biology. Cells. Nucleolus. Endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi apparatus

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Teacher: Division: 8B2 Animal Cell Animal Cell's Functions Nucleus The nucleus is the most obvious organelle in any eukaryotic cell. It is surrounded by a double partially permeable membrane. The nucleus, orders the rest of the organelles what type of products they should make and when to make them. It communicates within its surroundings through via numerous nuclear pores. Within the nucleus the chromosomes are the ones in charged to keep the inherited information. It also contains the DNA: the DNA is similar in every cell of the body, but depending on the specific cell type. All cells contain much more DNA than they actually use. A small percentage of this DNA is active, and the rest of it is outdated (or nonsense DNA) that the organism no longer uses. Nucleolus: The NUCLEOLUS manufactures RIBOSOMES, structures in which proteins are assembled. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The ER membrane is a continuation of the outer nuclear membrane and its function suggests just how complex and organized the eukaryotic cell really is. The ER stretches from the nuclear membrane to the plasma membrane. It serves as a pathway through the cytoplasm, as a support structure for the attachment of other organelles, and as a workstation for the ribosomes. Golgi Apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is a membrane−bound structure with a single membrane. It is actually a stack of membrane−bound vesicles that are important in packaging macromolecules for transport elsewhere in the cell. The stack of larger vesicles is surrounded by numerous smaller vesicles containing those packaged macromolecules (it sort of gives the final touches). Mitochondria: Eukaryotic cells have a special organelle called the mitochondrion that converts energy into food (aerobic respiration). Vacuole: The vacuole contains the cell's food, water and waste products. It is usually large in animal cells. Cell Membrane:


The cell surface membrane is made up of fat and proteins. It controls what goes in and out (partially permeable), it holds the cell together. Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is a jelly−like substance, with 70% water, where all the organelles take place. Ribosomes: They are the ones that build proteins; they are manufactured by the nucleolus. The ribosomes consist of two separate subunits: a large, lower subunit and a small, upper subunit. Ribosomes attach to the rough ER .


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