COURTROOM TERMINOLOGY AND RESEARCH

COURTROOM TERMINOLOGY AND RESEARCH Marco Hanson, Language Access Coordinator, Texas Office of Court Administration YOU ARE THE CONDUCTOR WORDS ARE YO

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COURTROOM TERMINOLOGY AND RESEARCH Marco Hanson, Language Access Coordinator, Texas Office of Court Administration

YOU ARE THE CONDUCTOR WORDS ARE YOUR MUSICIANS

DEVELOPING A RELATIONSHIP WITH COURT TERMINOLOGY • 1. Discover a new term • 2. Understand it in context • 3. Translate it in multiple senses of meaning • 4. Relate it to things you already know to aid memory • 5. Use it until you’re comfortable with it • 6. Practice it until it springs instantly to mind

1

EXAMPLE IN RUSSIAN • Please: пожалуйста

EXAMPLE IN RUSSIAN

EXAMPLE IN RUSSIAN • Please: пожалуйста (PAH zhel-stuh)

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EXAMPLE IN RUSSIAN • Please: пожалуйста (PAH zhel-stuh)

EXAMPLE IN RUSSIAN • Please: пожалуйста (PAH ZHEL-stuh) • Pause jail stuff • Pa’s jail stuff • Pa’s jelly-stuffed • Pa’s gelato • Pa’s gel stew

DEVELOPING A RELATIONSHIP WITH COURT TERMINOLOGY • 1. Discover a new term • 2. Understand it in context • 3. Translate it in multiple senses of meaning • 4. Relate it to things you already know to aid memory • 5. Use it until you’re comfortable with it • 6. Practice it until it springs instantly to mind

3

EXAMPLE IN SPANISH • Fedatario: (m) Notario u otro funcionario que da fe pública • Use traditional, quality dictionaries (Spanish, English, bilingual, legal, interpreter-specific) • Use online dictionaries and translator forums (rae.es, wordreference.com, proz.com, linguee.com, translate.google.com, Google) • Talk to other knowledgeable people

EXAMPLE IN SPANISH • fedatario: (m) Notario u otro funcionario que da fe pública • notario, ria (del lat. notarĭus): • 1. m. y f. Funcionario público autorizado para dar fe de los contratos, testamentos y otros actos extrajudiciales, conforme a las leyes. • 2. m. y f. Persona que deja testimonio de los acontecimientos de los que es testigo. • 3. m. El que desempeñaba la labor de escribano y daba fe de escritos y otros actos.

EXAMPLE IN SPANISH • fedatario: (m) Notario u otro funcionario que da fe pública • notario, ria (del lat. notarĭus): • 1. m. y f. Funcionario público autorizado para dar fe de los contratos, testamentos y otros actos extrajudiciales, conforme a las leyes. • 2. m. y f. Persona que deja testimonio de los acontecimientos de los que es testigo. • 3. m. El que desempeñaba la labor de escribano y daba fe de escritos y otros actos. • dar fe: • 7. f. Seguridad, aseveración de que algo es cierto. El escribano da fe. • 8. f. Documento que certifica la verdad de algo. Fe de soltería, de bautismo.

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EXAMPLE IN SPANISH • Fedatario: (m) Notario u otro funcionario que da fe pública • Fedatario/a: (noun) Notary public or other official who attests to the identity of someone signing a document

EXAMPLE IN SPANISH • Fedatario: (m) Notario u otro funcionario que da fe pública • Fedatario/a: (noun) Notary public or other official who attests to the identity of someone signing a document • Fe – da – tario  faith – give – r  faithgiver (someone who gives you reason to believe that a document was signed legally)

EXAMPLE IN SPANISH • Fedatario: (m) Notario u otro funcionario que da fe pública • Fedatario/a: (noun) Notary public or other official who attests to the identity of someone signing a document • Fe – da – tario  faith – give – r  faithgiver (someone who gives you reason to believe that a document was signed legally) • Related terms: notary public, notario, escribano, attest, da fe

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DEVELOPING A RELATIONSHIP WITH COURT TERMINOLOGY • 1. Discover a new term • 2. Understand it in context • 3. Translate it in multiple senses of meaning • 4. Relate it to things you already know to aid memory • 5. Use it until you’re comfortable with it • 6. Practice it until it springs instantly to mind

TRAINING WITH FLASHCARDS

TRAINING WITH FLASHCARDS • 1. Collect terms you need to know in a notebook, journal, etc. • 2. Create flashcards with English on one side and Spanish on the other • 3. Shuffle them and deal out ten • 4. Carry those ten with you and study them in spare moments (stopped at a red light, riding the elevator, waiting in line for lunch, etc.) • 5. Go through the set with your second language showing, and try to remember the word in your first language • 6. When you can do all ten, flip them over and look at the word in your first language and try to remember it in your second

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TRAINING WITH FLASHCARDS • Practice now with a partner: • Choose ten unfamiliar words from the “Problem Cognates” handout • Write them in English and Spanish on opposite sides of your ten cards • Practice them first with your second language showing • When you can say them all, practice with your dominant language showing • Use cartoons, doodles, phrases, imagery, cognates, word association, and any other memory trick to connect the new word with things you already know • Once you know all ten, shuffle them and have a partner read them aloud while you answer as fast as possible • Shuffle and repeat for greater speed and accuracy

TRAINING WITH FLASHCARDS • Traditional paper flashcards • Online flashcards sharing websites (quizlet.com, byki.com, etc.) • Flashcard apps for phones and other devices • Recorded MP3s of your voice reading one word, pausing, then the other

TRAIN YOUR BRAIN LIKE AN ATHLETE TRAINS MUSCLES AND REFLEXES

пожалуйста

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PROBLEM COGNATES Prepared 2011 by Juanita Ulloa, Staff Interpreter, Office of Court Administration Edited by Cristina Helmerichs, Federally Certified Interpreter Proper interpretation requires skill in proper grammar, register usage, specialized vocabulary, cultural expressions, idioms and slang. As licensed (or certified) court interpreters, the author and editor of the list below have tested expertise in at least two languages (ex: English and Spanish), including many years of observing the problems cause by use of false cognates. The following list incorporates terms they find are commonly misused and misinterpreted in the legal setting.

English-Spanish Original Term Act of Congress

Cognate to beware of Acta

Adjudicate

Adjudicar

Alienation

Alineación

Appear in court

Aparecer en la corte

Application (as a document) Arraignment

Aplicación Arrendamiento

Real Meaning of Cognate Record, as in “On The Record” Award (as in award a concession or a contract) Alignment or Line up Making oneself materialize at Supreme Court To physically apply something Rent

Assault Bar Association (local)

Asalto Asociación de barra

Hold up (rob) Relating to a bar

Correct translation Ley Fallar, Dictar (ejercicio de las funciones propias de un juez) Enajenación Comparecer ante el tribunal o ante el juzgado, presentarse ante… solicitud Instrucción de cargos Lectura de cargos Agresión Asociación de abogados o Barra (only MX)

Barra Texas State Bar Best interest of the child Case Case law

Mejor interés

Best interest rate

Caso Leyes de causas

Wrong use of term Literal/Wrong use of term Weight of the Supreme Court School or Bar Association (levels vary depending on country) Property belonging to the community In use; not formal

Charge of the Court College

Cargo de la corte

Community property Conspiracy

Propiedad de la comunidad Conspiración

Colegio

1

Colegio de Abogados Para mayor beneficio del menor Causa Jurisprudencia Instrucciones del juez al jurado Universidad Instituto pos-secundario (one exception: El Colegio de México is a university) Bienes gananciales, bienes de sociedad conyugal (MX) Asociación delictiva o

Conviction

Convicción

Counsel

Consul

Court

Corte

Courthouse

Casa corte

Court reporter

Reportera/o de la corte

Criminal (person)

Criminal

Criminal law Crime

Ley criminal o leyes criminales Crimen

Custody of property Defraud

Custodia de propiedad Defraudar

Demand

Demandar

Deposition

Deposición

Disobey the law

Desobedecer la ley,

Domestic violence Driving drunk/intoxicated DWI/DUI

Violencia doméstica (term used in Spain) Manejar intoxicado

Educated (as in well educated)

Educado

Manejar intoxicado

Legal term To have a conviction

asociación con fines delictivos Condena, declaración de culpabilidad, Fallo condenatorio Refers to Consul at Abogado, representación legal, the Consulate asesor legal In use; In all Tribunal/juzgado Spanish speaking countries refers to Supreme Court or to an appellate court Appellate house Palacio de justicia, Los juzgados, Centro judicial News reporter for Taquígrafa/o o estenógrafa/o appellate proceedings Means a murderer Delincuente or other violent felon Ley penal, leyes penales Murder or other heinous crimes Wrong use of term

Delito

Disappoint or second meaning “to evade” or trickery To sue someone

Desfalcar, estafar

Driving in a poisoned state Driving in a poisoned state Well mannered

Manejar/Conducir en estado de ebriedad o embriagado Manejar en estado de embriaguez Estudiado, estudios académicos,

Tenencia

Presentar/entablar una demanda o acción legal, Insistir A legal term whose Declaración jurada second meaning extrajudicial must be used judiciously, as it means a bowel movement Non legal Contravenir, infringir la ley, description quebrantar la ley Youthful violence Violencia intrafamiliar

2

It is “evident” To “exhibit” oneself; gallery exhibit Treachery or disloyalty

Evidence Exhibits

Evidencia Exhibición

Felony

Felonía

Form (as in paperwork) Honor, Your Information (procedure)

Forma

Jurisdiction

Jurisdicción

Juvenile court

Corte de juveniles

Juvenile delinquent Life sentence Malice aforethought Misdemeanor

Delincuente

Molest

Molestar

Motion No contest

Moción No contesto

Notary public

Notario Público

Objection!

Objeción

Offense

Ofensa

To offend

Delito

Office

Oficial

Official or military officer

Funcionario (if court officer) Agente (if police officer)

Su honor or honoría Información

Sentencia de vida Malicia Crimen pequeño

Is a physical form (piece of paper) Information (non-legal use of term) Incorrect use of term Supreme Court for people that act youthfully This applies to adults Bad intent instead of premeditation Literally “little crime”; wrong use of term To “bother” rather than to sexually take advantage of someone Movement Literally, “I won’t answer”

Prueba Prueba real, artículos de prueba Delito mayor, delito grave Crimen (for murder or extremely violent crimes only) Formulario Su señoría o señor juez Acusación del fiscal, querella penal Competencia Tribunal de menores

Transgresor or infractor Cadena perpetua Dolo penal/Alevosía Delito menor o delito menos grave Abuso deshonesto o abuso sexual

Pedimento No me opongo, nolo contendere, no respondo a los cargos In Mexico, a lawyer Funcionario fedatario that is a civil law Public Notary and has powers not vested in a U.S. notary Non-standard legal ¡Protesto! ¡Me opongo! term

3

Perpetrator Physical abuse

Perpetuador Abuso físico

Non-existent word

Petition Probation Proof

Petición Probación/probatorio Probatorio means probative Evidencia Evident

Remedy (legal)

Remedio

Potion or solution Non-legal use of term

Rent

Renta

This is ONLY acceptable in border region and Mexico (and there it is colloquial)

alquiler

Security (Legal)

Seguridad

garantía prestada por el deudor, aval

Sentence

Sentencia

State, the Statutes

El Estado Estatutos

Feeling secure or having bodyguards; does not mean a bond or guarantee In Spanish, a judgment but in a wider sense than its legal English cognate, which means only the punishment imposed after a guilty verdict In use By-Laws (iecorporate by-laws)

Statute of Limitations

Estatuto de Limitaciones

Ley de prescripción/ Prescripción liberatoria

Violation

Violación

Literal interpretation is a non-legal term meaning something with limits Rape; does not mean a legal infraction

Spanish-English 4

Autor Maltrato Solicitud Libertad a prueba Elementos probatorios, Objectos de prueba Elementos de prueba Recurso judicial/extrajudicial para hacer valer un derecho

Pena, Condena

La fiscalía/procuraduría Ley

Contravención de la ley, Infracción

Abandonar

Abandon

Wrong term; false cognate Non-legal verb “to be active” Wrong term; false cognate

To leave but not in the sense of abandon; exit Assets

Activos

Active

Demandar

To insist

Doy fe

I give faith

Non-legal use of term

I attest, I certify

Jurisprudencia

Jurisprudence

Only in English doe this term refer to the legal field in general

Case law

Notario público

Notary Public

Civil law notary In Mexico, a notary sometimes also acts as a lawyer.

Retirar

Retire

English meaning includes means only a notary, who is a person authorized to verify signatures for legal purposes. There is no “criminal” notary in the U.S. Wrong definition

Sentencia

Sentence

Spanish usage is civil AND criminal. Sentencia is a consequence of proven liability

Fallo, determinación, resolución, dictamen

5

To sue someone

Withdraw, as in withdraw funds

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