A Practical Course in Terminology Processing

UNIVERSIDAD VERACRUZANA FACULTAD DE IDIOMAS TRABAJO PRACTICO EDUCATIVO "What is terminology?" (first part) Del Libro A Practical Course in Terminol

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UNIVERSIDAD VERACRUZANA FACULTAD DE IDIOMAS

TRABAJO PRACTICO EDUCATIVO "What is terminology?" (first part)

Del Libro

A Practical Course in Terminology Processing de JUAN C. SAGER QUE PARA OBTENER EL TITULO DE: LICENCIADO EN LENGUA INGLESA PRESENTAN:

^MONROY FRANCO JANET Y SANTAMARIA RODRIGUEZ VERONICA

TRABAJO PRACTICO EDUCATIVO

"What is terminology?" (first part)

Del Libro A Practical Course in Terminology Processing de JUAN C. SAGER QUE PARA OBTENER EL TITULO DE: LICENCIADO EN LENGUA INGLESA PRESENTAN:

MONROY FRANCO JANET Y SANTAMARIA RODRIGUEZ VERONICA 0000077

TRABAJO PRACTICO EDUCATIVO

"What is terminology?" (first part)

Del Libro A Practical Course in Terminology Processing de JUAN C. SAGER QUE PARA OBTENER EL TITULO DE: LICENCIADO EN LENGUA INGLESA PRESENTAN:

MONROY FRANCO JANET Y SANTAMARIA RODRIGUEZ VERONICA DIRECTOR DEL TRABAJO:

LIC. DAVID OLIVA FUENTES

Acknowledgements

ti Senor por ser el que guia mi camino

A mis Padres por darme su amor y la oportunidad de superarme

A mis Hermanos por el apoyo y estimulo brindados

A mi novio por su inapreciable ayuda

Agradezco al Lie. David Oliva Fuentes por la Direccion de este trabajo

Acknowledgements

A1 Senor por darme la oportunidad de vivir

A mis padres : Leonardo Monroy y Ada Franco Por brindarme su apoyo en ejemplo y amor sin igual.

todas

las

formas posibles ; por

su

A mis queridos hermanos : Leonardo, Ada Patricia,Ces^r y con especial y profundo agradecimiento a Juan y Oscar porque sin su solidaridad y apoyo esta tesis hubiera quedado inconclusk. A todos ellos porque junto con nuestros padres y cunados formamos una verdadera familia.

A mis amigos : Por soportarme

Con todo carino y respeto al Lie. David Oliva Fuentes : Por su araistad, estimulo, paciencia, reganos . y por sus atinadas sugerencias que hicieron posible la realizacion de este trabajo.

LIST OF CONTENTS Title Acknowledgements List of contents

1. Introduction P&gina 1.1 Rationale for the work

1

1.2 Importance of the text and its author

2

1.3 Objectives

2

1.4 Organization of the work

3

2. Development

2.1 Theoretical background 2.2 Translation 2.3 Comments

3. Conclusion

>

5 11 20

36

Appendixes A. Original text B. Glossary

38

Bibliography

40

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Rationale for the work Currently, translation is being required more and more each day.

It is considered

importance

it

has

as a bridge between cultures due

had

in man's

life.

Several

to

countries,

the like

Mexico use it to obtain better relationships, not only because of the need

for getting wider knowledge about other cultures,

but

because of the North America Free Trade Agreement,

(NAFTA) with

our

America

neighbouring

Canada. demand

This of

countries,

agreement

translation

the

United

conveys in

an

Mexico,

States

important thanks

of

increase

to

the

in

and the

commercial,

cultural and technological exchange which is taking place. Taking

into

account

previously

said

taking

concentration

the

Department, been area:

we

and

Teaching,

advantage

for

relating

consider

successful.

us

Now

the it

area that

new

Literature in

importance to

our

of

career,

in translation the

change

generations or

comparison

they had no area of concentration.

the

been

we

are

Languages

curriculum

concentrate

previous

has

where

of

in the

Translation. to

what

has

on

specific

is

a

great

generations,

since

This

1.2 Importance of the text and its author Over the last few years, technological development has been growing

amazingly

both

nationally

and

internationally.

This

development gave rise to organizations which are in charge of the analysis that

and

few

standardization

authors

are

study of

involved

in

terminology.

writing

about

It

is

known

terminology.

However Juan C. Sager is the first one in carrying it out. In his book A Practical Course in Terminology presents

a

recognized

series

of

rules

that

indicate

and compiled. The chapter

"What

important because it is the part in which terminology

is about. Besides

it presents

Processing,

he

terms

can

be

terminology?"

is

how is

Sager describes terminology

what

as a

new

field of investigation and how it is related to other sciences.

1.3 Objectives What

we

intend

to obtain with

the present

final

paper

is

mainly to put into practice all the acquired knowledge throughout our Academic

Training

and

so,

to

get

a

bachelor's

degree

in

English Language. Concerning the social usefulness of this text, we can say that, first of all, it will be of great help for those who are interested in "Terminology", and also for the students in their beginning

levels of English

and

French Languages

B.D.

If

someone does not know very much about this subject, this is a way to obtain a better comprehension of it.

1.4 Organization of the work The final paper is organized as follows: At the beginning we present the title,

the

acknowledgments

and the list of contents. The reasons

first for

objectives

section

carrying that

we

is out

an

introduction

this

pursue

project

explained.

organization of the work, where we mention

where

the

are

given,

We

also

different and

the

find

the

all parts that

this

Final Paper contains. The second part presents the Theoretical

Background,

which

is a reflection about the theoretical bases of translation. Here, we mention

diverse translation

models,

emphasizing

translation one. After is the translation terminology7" Course

in

taken

from

Terminology

about transpositions

the

Juan

Processing.

the

of the text

C.

Sager's

Then

there

book are

oblique "What is

A

Practical

some

comments

found in the text, and we set . forward the

transposition analysis made in our translation. The

third

section

has

the

conclusion

of

the

final

paper,

where we mention all the following procedures for the elaboration of our work, and the satisfaction that we got after having done it."

At the end of the paper there are two appendixes. first

one contains the original text and the second

glossary. Finally, we present the bibliography for the work.

The

one a

DEVELOPMENT

2.1 Theoretical background Translation is one of the most ancient activities, which has always

taken

place

in

the

human

history

and

it

has

been

considered as a link between several existing cultures. Translation has gone through different been

useful

for

its

improvement;

stages and this has

however,

it

had

not

been

considered as a science until the XXth century. Traductology

is

composed

of

two

aspects:

the

theoretical

problems and the translation models. The theoretical problems are:

EQUIVALENCE:

it is the whole

transmission

of the

original

semantical stylistics correspondence of translation with the linguistics resources (Fedorov, 1958) .

TEXTUAL

TIPOLOGY:

"

few

texts

are

purely

expressive,

informative or vocative: most- include; all three

functions,

with an emphasis on one of the three. However, strictly, the expressive informative

function text

has

-it

no

is

place

there

in

only

a

vocative

or

unconsciously

as

underlife. Most informative text will either have a vocative thread

running

translator

picks

through this

them up),

(it or

is

the

essential vocative

that

function

the is

restricted to a separated section or recommendation opinion, or

value-

judgement;

a

text

can

hardly

be

purely

informative, ie. Objective. An expressive text will usually carry information; the degree of its vocative component will vary

and

is

a

matter

of

argument

among

critics

and

translator, depending partly at least, on its proportion of 'universal'and 'expressive',

'cultural'

components.

'informative' and

show the emphasize of

The

epithets"

'vocative' are used only to

'thrust'

(schwerpunkt)

of a text.

"

(Newmark, Peter, 1988:43).

TRANSLATABILITY: translated.

it

is

Referring

the a

ability

text

as

that has a text

an

amount

of

to be

structured

sentences, it means that any text in the SL can be changed by

another

one

in

the

TL

with

a

similar

communicative

fuction.

INTRANSLATABILITY: " the creative element in translation is circumscribed.

It

hovers

when

the

standard

translation

procedures fail, when translation is 'impossible'. It is the last

resource,

but

for

a' challenging

text

it

is

not

infrequently called on. If it dominates a text it becomes an adaptation, an idiosyncratic interpretation which can hardly be verified. " (Peter, Newmark, 1991:7).

On

the

other

hand

there

are

approximately

fifteen

translation linguistic models but the most important ones are the following:

REGULAR CORRESPONDENCE MODEL

(Sovietic School). This

model

was proposed by Fedorov in the 50's, its focus is inductive and

is

based

on

different

languages

and

its

commonest

correspondences.

SITUATIONAL Catford given

who

MODEL

(British

considered

situation

the

TL

for

that

the

It

was

proposed

exchangeable

texts

(interpretation)

the

SL

text

that

as a text refers

by

in

are equivalents, moreover he describes

translation process of

School).

a

the

replacement

to

a

similar

situation.

TRANSFORMATIONAL

MODEL

Nida

suggested

and

Taber

(North

American

three

stages

School). for

the

In

1969,

original

mode1: a)Analysis b)Transfer c)Restructuring

. Among all the translation models, we have chosen the FrenchCanadian model because it proves to be one of the most

complete

and valid for the translator's technical training. It began to be formulated in 1958 by Vinay and Darbelnet; they took into account

Saussure, Andr6 Martinet and Charles Bally theories. This model is based

on

contrastive

linguistics, mainly

on

stylistic

and

intrastive grammar. This model is called the oblique translation model since its purpose is not to translate word by word, but to keep away of the original text without losing the real meaning. French-Canadian translation model is divided into: Direct translation: it is composed by borrowing, caique and literal translation. Borrowings:

are words in SL that are adapted to TL to

define a situation or an object that does not exist. Caique:

it

is

a

special

type

of

borrowing

whose

elements are translated literally. Literal

translation:

it

is

simply

a

word

by

word

translation.

Indirect of

eight

proposed

translation or oblique translation: performance by

Vinay

and

technical Darbelnet

procedures. and

four

this (Four

consists basics

complementaries

ones by V&zquez Ayora) : Basic Performance Technical Procedures:

TRANSPOSITION: it is a procedure in which a grammatical category or a part of a sentence in

the SL is changed

by another grammatical category in the TL in order to

express the same idea.

(This kind of procedure will be

used for the translation analysis).

MODULATION:

Vinay

and

Darbelnet

coined

the

term

"Modulation" to define "a variation through a change of viewpoint or perspective category

of

thought."

(6clairage) and very often of

(Newmark,

Peter,

Approaches

to

translation, 1991:88).

EQUIVALENCE: procedure in which a real situation of the SL

is

looking

for the

same

situation

through

another

word in the TL.

ADAPTATION: it is a procedure used to solve particular circumstances,

whose

aim

is

to

achieve

a

particular

kind of equivalence. Once again, judgments need made

in

terms

of

adequacy

of

given

to be

procedures

for

achieving particular ends. (Hatim and Mason).

Complementary Performance Technical Procedures EXPANSION: it is a procedure in which more words in the TL are used than in the SL in order to express the same idea and obtain a better comprehension. EXPLICITNESS:

this procedure helps to express TL

what

is implicit in the SL. OMISSION:

this procedure eliminates a text part

in order to avoid pleonasm or tautology in TL.

in SL

COMPENSATION: in which meaning

at

the

moment

there is a significant of

doing

translation

compensated in another part of the same.

loss of and

is

2.2

Translation

Capitulo Uno 5 Introducci6n

c.Qu6 es la terminologia?

10

1.1 On nuevo campo de investigacion y actividad Aunque los primeros semSnticos se ocupan de la terminologia, no

es sino hasta el siglo XX que se le ha reconocido como una

disciplina

independiente.

Esta

aseveraei6n

se

basa

en

dos

fundamentos: el hecho de que se ha desarrollado un marco te6rico 15

nuevo - para

tratar

el

fen6meno

lenguas especializadas, considere

un firea de

adem6s

de

la

de que

aplicacion

denominaci6n

en

algunas

a la terminologia

aut6noma

en

el

campo

se

le

de

la

comunicaci6n. Esta obra niega el status independiente de la terminologia 20

como

una

disciplina,

asignatura

en

sin

casi

embargo,

todos

los

ratifica

programas

su

utilidad

como

contemporcineos

de

ensefianza. No hay nada substancial en la literatura que pudiera apoyar

la proclamacion

aislada, 25

y

es

poco

de

la

probable

significativo .que pueda decirse apropiado

decirlo

informaci6n

o

en

el

terminologia que

a

disciplina

haberla.

Todo

lo

acerca de la terminologia es m&s

contexto

lingQistica

llegue

como una

linguistico,

computacional.

ciencia

de

la

Consideramos

a

la

terminologia como una serie de pr&cticas que han desarrollado la creaci6n

5

de

terminos,

su

finalmente,

su presentaci6n

impresos

electr6nicos.

y

recopilaci6n

y

explicaci6n

en diversos medios de

Sin

embargo,

los

y,

comunicaci6n

procedimientos

bien

establecidos no constituyen una disciplina, no se puede dudar que a lo largo de la historia de la metodologia los procedimientos requieren de fundamentos te6ricos que justifiquen su naturaleza particular. cosas

10

que

Las se

disciplinas justifican

establecen

por

si

el

mismas;

conocimiento la

sobre

metodologia

es

solamente un medio para lograr un prop6sito, el cual, en el caso de la terminologia, seria c6mo hacer esas cosas. La datos

necesidad

de una metodologia

terminol6gicos

se ha

para

incrementado

el procesamiento

considerablemente

de

como

respuesta al brote informativo, el cual conduce al incremento de 15

lo relacionado con las designaciones apropiadas para la creaci6n de

muchos

tecnologia,

y

nuevos

conceptos,

especificamente,

en

y para un fuerte interns dentro de la

ciencia

y

comunicaci6n

internacional efectiva. Despues de ser del dominio exclusivo de unos cuantos te6ricos y especialistas en temas diversos durante 20

muchas d§cadas,

la prSctica

terminol6gica

se convirtio

en

una

metodologia coherente, con teorias de apoyo apropiadas por medio de los esfuerzos persistentes de un pequefio grupo de academicos y practicantes. Una vez reunido tal cuerpo de conocimiento, con el cual 25

los especialistas

pudieran

estar de acuerdo en

tener

sus

propios fundamentos te6ricos, objetivos y metodologia, 6sta seria descrita como un area tematica, y enseftada tanto a estudiantes universitarios como de postgrado. Actualmente, se ofrecen' cursos

de

terminologia

Continente

en

algunas

Americano,

aunque

universidades sin

el

apoyo

europeas

de

una

y

del

bibliografia

adecuada. Esta obra propone llenar ese vacio en el idioma ingl6s.

5

1.2 Definicion La terminologia tiene numerosos antecedentes,

se relacionan

con muchas disciplinas y es de interes practico para todos los estudiantes de temas especificos y de lenguas. Por lo tanto, es apropiada 10

en

esta etapa de

su

emancipacion

como

una

practica

independiente y area de estudio delimitada y relacionada a las disciplinas en las cuales se puede aplicar. Aunque, la terminologia tiene fundamentalmente sus raices en la linguistica y en la sem&ntica,

se encontr6

su mas

reciente

motivaci6n en el amplio campo de los estudios de comunicacion, el 15

cual puede describirse como una extensi6n moderna de la trilogia medieval, Con

esta

compuesta por la Logica, orientacion,

la

la GramAtica

terminologia

puede

y la

Ret6rica.

pretender

ser

verdaderamente interdisciplinaria. La terminologia es vital para el 20

funcionamiento

de todas

designaciones

de

ligada

numero

a

seflalado Wiister.

un por

El,

su la

otras

mas llamo

las

Areas

ciencias, temSticas,

especifico

de

distinguido un

campo

de

se relaciona y

estS

disciplinas, y

moderno estudio

con

las

estrechamente como

ya

protagonista:

fue E.

interdisciplinario,

relacionando la Linguistica, la Logica, la Ontologia y la ciencia 25

de la informacion, con sus diversas areas tematicas. El elemento comun entre estas disciplinas, es que cada una est£

relacionada

al menos, en parte, con la organizacion formal de las complejas relaciones entre conceptos y terminos.

sus 5

Puesto que,

la terminologia

definiciones

y

nombres,

estS vinculada

solo

seria

con

apropiado

conceptos, comenzar

un

debate teniendo una definicion exacta de la materia. La

terminologia

es

el

estudio

y

campo

de

actividad,

vinculado a la recopilacion, la descripci6n, el procesamiento y presentacion

de

terminos,

es

decir,

unidades

lexicas

que

pertenecen a areas especializadas de uso de una o mas lenguas. 10

Sus objetivos son semejantes a los de la lexicografia, combina

el

informacion

doble

intento

acerca

del

de

la

recopilaci6n

16xico

de

una

lengua

la cual

general

de

mediante

el

suministro de informaci6n y algunas veces consultando a un asesor especializado en el tema. La justificacidn de considerarla como 15

una actividad separada de la lexicografia, reside en la diferente naturaleza

de

los

datos

tradicionalmente

agrupados

en

los

diversos antecedentes de la gente involucrada en este trabajo, y en algunas extensiones de los diferentes metodos empleados. Etimol6gicamente 20

polis6mico,

es

hablando,

decir,

una

"terminologia"

palabra

con

diversos

es

un

nombre

significados,

ninguno de los cuales corresponde precisamente al analisis de un significado tradicional de los elementos que lo componen. Por su etimologia, "terminologia" significaria: "ciencia, estudio o 25

conocimiento

de

tferminos",

lo cual

lo

haria

semejante

a la

Lexicologia'que es la ciencia, estudio o conocimiento del lexico o unidades 16xicas;

sin embargo,

esta explicaci6n es rechazada

por la mayoria de los termin61ogos. Historicamente, el primer uso

que se le dio a la terminologia, se establecio haciendo alusi6n a un vocabulario t6cnico, es decir, una recopilacidn de terminos, que tienen coherencia por el hecho de que pertenecen a un area tematica 5

individual.

Actualmente,

la

terminologia

se

usa

en

cierto modo, mas estrechamente para referirse en particular a un conjunto de terminos constante y coherente, que pertenecen a un tema

especializado,

actividad

como

el

resultado

terminologica particular, por ejemplo:

de glosarios 10

identificAndolo

de

una

la compilacion

sem&nticos. En el uso contemporSneo,

es

necesario

distinguir tres significados de la palabra: 1.1a

actividad

conjunto

de

definida

en

practicas

y

el

primer

metodos

p&rrafo;

que

se

es

utilizan

decir,

el

para

la

recopilacion, descripcion y presentaci6n de terminos; 2. una 15

teoria; es decir, el conjunto de premisas,

conclusiones

que

se

requieren

para

explicar

argumentos

las

y

relaciones

entre conceptos y t6rminos, los cuales son fundamentales para realizar una actividad coherente; 3.vocabulario de un tema especifico. En los primeros dos significados, la palabra es un sustantivo 20

incontable, y en el tercero, contable y puede pluralizarse. 1.3 La terminologia y disciplinas afines A1

igual

que

cualquier

otra metodologia,

la

terminologia

est£ influenciada tambi6n por otras areas tematicas y Areas de actividad de las cuales se sirve; por lo tanto, a la terminologia 25

se le ha denominado como una actividad interdisciplinaria m6s que como

una

asignatura. La metodologia

difiere

de

la

linguistica

general, ya que tiene sus propias teorias sobre el 16xico de una

lengua,

ademas

una

metodologia

particular,

fundamentada

en

esas teorias.

(festas se plantean en los capitulos dos y tres de

este

Sin

libro).

experiencia 5

de

opiniones

embargo,

humana y

estas

estan

desarrollos

teorias

influenciadas que

ocurren

como por

cualquier

otra

descubrimientos,

simultaneamente

en

otras

areas de conocimiento. Las diferentes divisiones de conocimiento tambien

llevan

a

hacer

cambios

en

la

percepci6n

de

la

terminologia. Recientemente, por ejemplo, la lingQistica aplicada en su relacion con el analisis y ensefianza de lenguajes de &reas 10

especializadas

(lenguas para fines especificos) ha considerado a

la terminologia como una parte de la linguistica que describe el lexico de lenguas especializadas.

Debido a que la

terminologia

requiere de una clasificacidn de temas y ha usado el concepto de estructura de tesauro, esta ha sido vinculada con la ciencia de 15

la informacldn. Es poco lo que se ha logrado de la exploracion de tales enlaces y menos en la atribucion subsecuente de porcentajes de conexiones

interdisciplinarias.

Los

conceptos

y

los m6todos

terminologicos originalmente pr^stamos de otras areas tematicas y disciplinas 20

tornado de acerca

de

concepto,

son de una la la la

Filosofia

naturaleza y de

la

estructura

del

naturaleza

de

general.

La

Epistemologia

conocimiento, las

la

definiciones,

terminologia algunas

teorias

formaci6n etc.;

ha

de

del la

Psicologia, las teorias de la percepci6n, de la comunicacion, del entendimiento, etc.; de la Linguistica, ha requerido de algunas 25

teorias

acerca

del

lexico,

su

formaci6n

y

su

estructura;

y

finalment.e, de la Lexicografia comparte metodos de estructura y descripci6n

de

palabras,

asi

como

de

la

experiencia

de

la

presentacion de la informacion acerca de la palabras.Esta amplia conexi6n de la terminologia se ve reflejada en la definici6n dada por la Asociaci6n Internacional de Terminologia en 1982: "La terminologia se ocupa del estudio y la utilizaci6n de

los

sistemas

empleados

de

para

simbolos

la

y

signos

comunicacidn

lingdisticos

humana

en

ctreas

especializadas de conocimiento y actividades. Antes nada,

la

terminologia

es

una

disciplina

que

linguistica

(interpretando a la linguistica en su sentido mas amplio posible)

haciendo

significados

y

enfasis

en

conceptos)

la y

sem&ntica

en

la

{sistema

pragmitica.

de La

terminologia es interdisciplinaria en el sentido de que tambien

toma

conceptos

Epistemologia,

y

mStodos

de

la

Semiotica,

clasificaci6n, etc. La terminologia

estS

estrechamente vinculada a las Sreas tem&ticas. Aunque en tiempos pasados relacionada

la terminologia

con

los

aspectos

ha sido lexicos

principalmente

de

las

lenguas

especializadas, su visi6n se extiende a la sintaxis y a la fonologia. En su aspecto aplicado, la terminologia se relaciona

con

la

lexicografia

y

usa

tecnicas

de

la

ciencia de la informacion y la tecnologia."

Aunque diversos

esta

definicion

puntos de vista

se

formuld

para

reconciliar

sobre el tema, ha dado

origen

a

los una

controversia y discusion considerables. Hoy dia, suministro

la terminologia

de

recopilacion de

servicios

se relaciona

informativos

generalmente

del

informaci6n de terminos para

cual

con

requiere

la compilacion

el la de

diccionarios

y glosarios,

y ultimamente

de

entradas

en

bancos

terrninol6gicos. En este sentido, la terminologia ha experimentado un cambio radical en arios recientes. Hasta que se dispuso de la tecnologia 5

de

bas4

de

datos,

la producci6n

de diccionarios

y

glosarios era como la de cualquier otro libro: pluma y papel, o maquina

de

escribir

compilacion

y

y ocasionalmente

procesamiento

de

la

impresos. Actualmente,

terminologia

es

un

la

proceso

semiautomatico que constantemente responde a nuevos pr6stamos de informaci6n tecnol6gica, de la ciencia de la informaci6n y de la 10

linguistica computacional. Por lo tanto, los principios y metodos de procesamiento terminol6gicos, deben entenderse como el estado actual aunque

del

arte

algunos

permanente. 15

por

en

este

probablemente

Los metodos

problemas

campo;

de

de

temas

no exigen validez m&s muestren

una

naturaleza

trabajo tambien est&n especializados i

y

una

gran

cantidad

de

nomenclatura

m&s

influenciados

las

costumbres

practicas que existen en cada area. La naturaleza de

amplia,

biol6gica

y

internacional y m§dica,

ejemplo, ha determinado que tipo de procesamiento

por

terminol6gico

puede ser mas util. 20

Ha habido tambi6n un cambio en el tipo de gente que trabaja en terminologia. Hasta hace poco, el procesamiento y recopilacion terminol6gica

era

casi

exclusivamente

realizada

por

especialistas, los cuales trabajan en sus propias areas y tenian muy 25

poco

contacto

terminol6gicos substancial

de

con

estaba

ellos.

acompanado

profesionistas,

El de a

desarrollo la los

de

creacion cuales

los de

se

bancos

un

grupo

les

podia

identificar como terminologos practicos. Una vez creado el grupo

de

profesionistas,

surge

un

incentivo

y

una

oportunidad

de

armonizacion de tecnicas y procedimientos. Ultimamente,

se ha ejercido

una gran

influencia

de

grupos

estandarizados que por varias d6cadas han esforzado por lograr el 5

acuerdo

mSs

grande

posible

en

los

problemas

de

procesamiento

terminologico. Un gran numero de paises, especialmente de Europa, han

desarrollado

representation

de

lineamientos conceptos

intentado producir documentos 10

para

la

t§cnicos, bSsicos,

formacion, e

incluso

definici6n algunos

y

han

los cuales parten de la

fundamentaci6n t'e6rica de su trabajo. Sin embargo, este tipo de actividad depende en gran parte del lenguaje y de la cultura; por lo tanto, no es sorprendente

que

no se haya progresado

en el

desarrollo de una guia estandarizada aplicable internacionalmente para el procesamiento de terminologia.

2.3 Comments In

the

performance

present

analysis

technical

we

will

focus

on

one

procedures which we consider

of

the

of

the

one

most important procedures at the moment of translating. We are referring to transposition which is included in the Theoretical Framework. To have a clear idea of this type of performance technical procedure, we will mention diverse opinions of the three authors

in translation

field, Lourdes Arencibia,

known

Peter Newmark

and Vazquez Ayora. First of all, transposition for Lourdes Arencibia consists of giving a suitable correspondence in the Target Language to the word transferred without changing the sense, this means that the message is reexpressed by an equivalent content to the original text.

These

changes

occur

when

word

by

word

translation

is

impossible to be made. According

to

Arencibia,

there

are

two

types

of

transposition: Mandatory transposition: When the SL translation of any syntagma can not be done through

an

hampred by The

equivalent

in

TL

because

the

translator

will

be

linguistic simple divergent structures. mandatory

transposition

implicates

also

an

option

between several expressions caused by the polysemy in SL of the transferring element.

Facultative transposition: It is when an element in SL can be replaced by another one in TL due to the criteria and translator's style without causing change in the sense. Lourdes

Arencibia

considers

four

different

types

of

facultative transposition: a)Replacement

of elements

one without the sense

of a grammatical

being altered.

category by another

This is the most simple

and general case. b)Transposition content;

by

they

sustitutions

means can

with

of

be

substitutions

partial,

category

starting

total,

replacements.

from

simple, Here,

L.

the

multiple Arencibia

makes a subdivision of the kinds of transposition: 1.Change in verbal tenses 2.Omission of elements by reduction 3. Replacement

of

the

superlative

by

its

verb

with

implicit

content c)Transposition by dissolution: It categories

is

the which

technique conveys

of

the

replacement

reduction

or

of

grammatical

dissolution

of

the

transferring element. d)Transposition by concentration: This

translation

content of categories concerning in TL.

procedure in SL

from

consists a

smaller

of

translating

number of

the

elements

According to Peter Newmark, transposition is a translation procedure involving

a change in the grammar from SL to TL.

He

mentions four types of transposition. 1.The first type: the change from singular to plural 2.The

second

grammatical

type:

transposition

structure does

not

is

exists

required

when

in the TL.

a

SL

Here,

the

neutral adjective functions as subject. 3.The

third

type:

transposition

is

the

one

when

literal

translation is grammatically possible, but may not accord with natural usage in the TL. • Within

the

third

type

of

transposition,

Newmark

makes

a

classification of it: • SL adjective plus adjectival noun, TL adverb plus adjective • SL prepositional phrase, TL preposition • SL adverbial phrase, TL adverb • SL noun plus adjective of substance, TL • SL

verb

of

motion,

with

en

and

noun plus noun present

participle

of

description, TL verb of description plus preposition • SL verb, TL empty verb plus verb-noun • SL noun plus, past participle or adjectival clause plus noun, TL noun plus preposition plus noun • SL participle clause

(active and passive), TL adverbial clause

or (occasionally) group.

4.The

fourth

type

of

transposition

is

the

replacement

of

a

virtual lexical gap by a grammatical structure. Certain

transpositions

appear

to

go

beyond

linguistic

differences and can ;be regarded as general options available for stylistic consideration.

Thus a complex sentence can normally be

converted to a co-ordinate sentence, or to two simple sentences. Finally, we are going to refer to Vazquez Ayora who defines transposition as a translation procedure, in which a part of SL discourse is replaced by another grammatical category in TL, in order to express the same idea.

The objective of transposition

procedure is to obtain a natural expression in TL.

VAzquez Ayora makes a division of transposition: 1.Adjective

x

verb

2.Adjective

x

noun

3.Adverb

x

noun

4.Adverb

x

adjective

5.Verb or past participle 6.Adverb

x

x

noun

verb

7.Verb

x

adjective

8.Verb

x

adverb

9.Noun

x

verb or past participle

10.Past participle 11.Finite article

x x

12.Possessive article

adjective non-finite article x

finite article

13 .Transposition of another particles:

the, and, as may, any

14.Transposition of this, these, that, those 15.Word

order

(considered

as

a

grammatical

change

as

a

word

order): Word order is divided into: SL: subject + adjective + possessive pronoun + noun + adverb

TL: verb + adve

SL: subject + adjective + verb + preposition + article + noun

TL: verb + adjective + adverb + preposition + article + noun

SL:

article

+

noun

+

preposition

+

noun

+

adjective

TL: article + noun + adjective + verb + adverb

SL: article + noun + verb + verb + adjective

TL: article + noun + ve

_

ial clause

verb

+

SL: subject + verb + possessive pronoun + noun

TL: verJ5"+ preposition + non-finite article + noun

SL:

subject

+

verb

+

reflexive

pronoun

+

adverb

+

-i- non-finite article + noun + preposition

+

preposition + non-fiinitegjstirSle + noun

TL: verb

noun + preposition + verb + adverb

SL: subject + verb + demonstrative pronoun + adverb

TL: subject + v e r C T preposition + verb

Different reflections from three authors have been made to talk about transposition, although these authors use other of

nomenclatures,

the

concept

of

this

performance

kind

technical

procedure is the same. In order

to analyse

the types of transposition,

we

will

base ourselves on Vazquez Ayora classification of transposition.

ADJECTIVE SL:

X

NOUN

PAG. 2

LIN. 34-35

...It could be described as a subject field and taught postgraduate

to

and undergraduate students...

iMANIDABESlI

25

TL:

PAG. 12

...esta

LIN. 25-27

serla

descrita

como un area

tematica,

y

ensenada

tanto a estudiantes unlversitarios como de postgrado...

SL:

PAG. 5

LIN.

157

Once such a professional group is created...

TL: PAG. 18-19 LIN. 27-1 Una vez creado el grupo de profesionistas...

It is a type of transposition in which the adjective in SL is replaced by a noun in TL. This

kind

several

options

student

that

of to

transposition be

is

translated.

facultative Postgraduate

since refers

continues studyng after having an academic

it to

has a

level.

That is the reason of its ambiguity since different degrees can be gotten. In the second example the transposition

is mandatory

since professional means a person who has a Bachelor's Degree.

ADVERB SL:

X

ADJECTIVE PAG. 1

LIN. 15-16

Everything of import that can be said about terminology is more appropriately said in the context of linguistics...

TL:

PAG. 11

Todo

lo

LIN. 24-26

significativo

terminologia

es

mas

que

pueda

apropiado

decirse

decirlo

acerca

de

en

el

can

usefully

la

contexto

linguistico...

SL: PAG.5 ...what

LIN. 151 type

of

terminology

processing

be

undertaken.

TL:

PAG. 18

...que

tipo

LIN. 18-19 de

procesamiento

terminol6gico

puede

ser

mas

util.

In this type of transposition, the adverb in SL is replaced by an adjective in TL. It

is a usual

kind of transposition

as Spanish

language

prefers adjectives to adverbs. The use of adverbs in Spanish lower than in English because of it uses -ly to add adjective and participles.

onono??

is

it to any

VERB

OR PAST PARTICIPLE SL:

PAG. 2

...which

LIN.

X

NOON

64-65

combines

the

double

data about the lexicon

of

aim

of

generally

collecting

a language with providing an

information. TL:

PAG. 14

...la

cual

LIN. 10-13 combina

el

doble

general de informacion

acerca

mediante el suministro de

SL: PAG. 4

intento del

de

la

16xico

recopilaci6n de

una

lengua

informaci6n. . .

LIN. 137-138

...which requires the collection of information about terms in order to compile dictionaries...

TL:

PAG. 17-18

...del

cual

LIN. 26-1

requiere

la

recopilacidn

de

informaci6n

de

terminos para la compilacion de diccionarios...

SL:

PAG. 5 LIN. 143-144

...constantly

responding

to

information technology.. .

innovations

borrowed

from

TL:

PAG. 18

LIN.8-9

. ..constantemente responde a nuevos prestamos de informaci6n tecnologica...

We

can

find

a

transposition,

in

this

case,

a

past

participle in SL by a noun in TL. In this type of transposition

a Spanish gerund or a past

participle can be used. However, it is not appropiated to use it a lot, because it would show a lack of vocabulary and in some cases it is not correct. That is the reason of noun preference.

VERB

X

ADJECTIVE

SL:

PAG. 2

LIN. 43-44

...as an independent practice and field of study to delimit it. . .

TL:

PAG. 13

...como

una

LIN. 9-10 practica

independiente

y

area

de

estudio

delimitada... We also found another type of transposition, in this case, a verb in SL by an adjective in TL. In this case, the example can be translated in other way so it is a facultative transposition.

POSSESIVE PRONOUN SL:

PAG. 3

X

DEFINITE ARTICLE

LIN. 72-73

...none of which correspond precisely to the analysis of the traditional meaning of its constituent elements.

TL:

PAG. 14

...ninguno

LIN. 21-22 de

los

cuales

corresponde

precisamente

analisis de un significado tradicional de los

al

elementos

que lo componen. Here, we can realize, there is and

at

the

moment

of

making

a possessive pronoun in SL

translation,

it

is

changed

by

a

definite article in TL. We can say about

this example that the Spanish

possesive

usage is not common as in other languages.

In the following section, the main objective is to explain word

order,

and

within

the

word

order

other

types

of

transposition will be presented.

WORD ORDER

We can say that in Spanish the verb is the most part of a sentence because of having that show the

important

its stress and be the one

main action, meanwhile in English the verb is hot

as important

as the particle

(adverbs, prepositions,

adjectives

etc.) since the particle carries the semantic stress.

SL:

PAG. 1 LIN..16-17

...in the context of linguistics or information science or computational

TL:

PAG. 11

linguistics.

LIN. 26-27

...en el contexto linguistico, ciencia de la infomacion o la linguistica computacional. In

this

type

of

transposition,

structure in SL, adjective TL, noun

SL:

+

+

we

can

realize

that

the

noun is completely different

in

adjective.

PAG. 3 LIN. 96-97

It is distinct from general linguistics...

TL:

PAG. 15

LIN.26-27

La metodologia difiere de la linguistica general.. .

In

this

example

of

transposition

there

is

a word

order

change, the structure in SL is adjective + noun was replaced by a noun + adjective in TL.

SL:

PAG. 1 LIN. 6-7

This claim rests on a dual foundation:

the observation that

an original theoretical framework...

TL: PAG. 11

LIN. 13-15

Esta aseveracion

se basa en dos fundamentos:

el hecho

de

adjective

+

que se ha desarrollado un marco teorico nuevo...

/ In

this

word

order,

the

structure

in

SL

is

adjective + noun, which in TL is changed into noun + adjective + adjective. structure

So

we

can

and

in

TL

see is

the

at

the

SL

noun

is

beginning.

at

the

end

Besides,

the

of

the

first

adjective in SL goes to the end of the structure in TL and the second adjective remains in the same place.

SL: PAG. 1 ...but

LIN. 12-13

affirms

its

value

as

a

subject

in

almost

every

contemporary teaching programme.

TL:

PAG. 11

LIN. 20-22

...sin embargo, ratifica su utilidad como asignatura en casi todos los programas contemporaneos de ensefianza.

The structure in SL is adjective + verb + ing + noun, which changes of order and grammatical category. The adjective

at the

beginning

of

the

SL

structure

passes

on

to

occupy

the

place

between the first noun and the preposition in TL. The verb + ing between the adjective and noun in SL, appears as a noun at the end

of

TL

structure;

the

noun

after

verb

in

SL

is

at

the

beginning of the TL structure.

SL:

PAG. 2

LIN. 30-31

...was forged into a coherent methodology with

appropriate

supporting theories•..

TL:

PAG. 12

LIN. 20-21

...se convirtio en una metodologia coherente, con teorias de apoyo apropiadas. The SL structure is adjective + verb + ing + noun,

which

changes of order and grammatical category. The

adjective

at

the

beginning

of

the

SL

structure,

appears at the end of TL structure; the verb in SL is converted into a noun in the TL, but remains

in the same place,

noun at the end of SL structure passes on to occupy

and the

the

first

place in TL.

SL:

PAG. 2

...which

LIN. 64-65

combines

the

double

data about the lexicon...

aim

of

generally

collecting

TL:

PAG. 14

...la

LIN. 10-12

cual

combina

el

doble

intento

de

la

recopilacion

general de informacion acerca del 16xico...

In

this

example,

we

can

find

not

only

a

word

order

transposition but also a grammatical category change. The adverb at

the

beginning

of

SL

structure

is

shifted

by

an

adjective

placed in the middle of TL structure, the verb + ing which is in the middle of SL structure is changed to a noun at the beginning of the TL structure, the noun after verb in SL does not change of grammatical category or order in the TL.

SL: PAG. 4

LIN. 104

...and teaching of special subject languages. . .

TL:

PAG. 16

LIN. 9-10

...y ensenanza de lenguajes de areas especializadas. . .

Here, the structure in the SL is adjective + noun + noun, the adjective in SL passes to the end of the structure in the TL; the noun after the adjective in SL TL;

finally,

the

noun

which

has the same order in

appears

at

the

end

structure passes to the beginning in the TL structure.

of

the

the SL

SL:

PAG. 5

LIN. 167-169

...therefore,

not

progress

has

surprising been

made

that in

little

international

developing

internationally applicable guidelines

standardised

for the processing

of terminology.

TL:

PAG. 19

LIN. 11-14

...por lo tanto, no es sorprendente que se haya progresado en

el

desarrollo

de

una

guia

estandarizada

aplicable

internacionalmente para el procesamiento de terminologia.

In this case, word order structure in SL, is verb in past participle + adverb + adjective + noun; whereas in the TL, the verb in past participle appears in the second place, between the noun

and

the

structure,

adjective,

the

and the adjective

adverb

passes

remains

in

to

the

the

end. of

same place and

the SL

noun is at the beginning of the structure. As we

have

transposition transpositions

is

noticed to

do

throughout

obtain not

a

alter

this

natural the

section,

translation.

content

different ways of saying the same idea.

because

the

aim

of

Therefore, they

are

CONCLUSION

As a result, of the present.. Final Paper, we should sfay. that after

having worked with chapter one "What is terminology?" From

Juan C. Sager's book A Practical

Course in Terminology

Processing

was useful and successful. It was proved that the transposition, performance

technical

procedure

of

the

very useful

(proposed by V&zquez Ayora).

oblique

translation

is

We decided to choose transposition because it is one of the most

common

procedures

trend Vazquez Ayora

at the moment

since

he

of doing

presents

very

translation.

clear and

We

detailed

information about transposition. We

consider

that

effective one and used result.

It

procedures

also

used

such

as:

the

oblique

translation 'method

is

an

in translation one can obtain a natural some

of

the

eight

equivalence,

performance

transposition,

technical

modulation,

adaptation, expansion, explicitness, omission and compensation in our translation. As we had already mentioned, these technical procedures are useful for translators, because they help us solve those lexical, pragmatic,

stylistic

and

found in a translation.

grammatical

problems,

that are

always

Besides procedures

having

for

our

used

Final

one

of

Paper,

the

performance

it was necessary

technical

to

find

out

about the basis and stages of translation and the diverse schools which have devoted to translation studies.

hard

Therefore

the

development

and

but

at

slow,

satisfaction become.

as

the

of this final project

same

professionals

time

and

it has

translators

has Been

given

us

a

great

that

we

hope

to

Chapter One INTRODUCTION WHAT IS TERMINOLOGY?

1.1

A new field o f e n q u i r y a n d a c t i v i t y

t h o u g h c o n c e r n with t e r m i n o l o g y ca.i b e t r a c e d b a c k to t i v e a r l i e r s u r . a n i i c i a n s , o n l y in ^ t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y h a s a c l a i m b e e n m a d e for t e r m i n o l o ^ a s an i n d e p e n d e n t d i s c i p l i n e .

T h i s c l a i m rests 011 a dual f o u n d a t i o n :

the

o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t an o r i g i n a l t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k has b e e n d e v e l o p e d n . d e a l with t h e p h e n o m e n a o f d e s i g n a t i o n in s p e c i a l l a n g u a g e s , , a n d the fact t h a i in t h e field o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t e r m i n o l o g y is c o n s i d e r e d a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d a r e a o f application. T h i s b o o k d e n i e s t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t u s o f t e r m i n o l o g y as a d i s c i p l i n e b u t a f f i r m s its v a l u e a s a s u b j e c t in a l m o s t e v e r y c o n t e m p o r a r y t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m m e . T h e r e is n o s u b s t a n t i a l b o d y o f l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h c o u l d s u p p o r t t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t e r m i n o l o g y a s a s e p a r a t e d i s c i p l i n e and t h e r e is not likelv u> b e . E v e r y t h i n g o f i m p o r t that c a n be said a b o u t t e r m i n o l o g y is m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y s a i d in t h e c o n t e x t o f l i n g u i s t i c , oi 'uiloi m a t i o n s c i e n c e ' o r r o r i l p i . i . . i i o r . . , l linguistics.

W e s e e t e r m i n o l o g y as a n u m b e r o f p r a c t i c e s that h a v e e v o l v e d

a r o u n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f t e r m s , t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n a n d e x p l i c a t i o n and finally their p r e s e n t a t i o n in v a r i o u s p r i n t e d a n d e l e c t r o n i c m e d i a . P r a c t i c e s , h o w e v e r w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , d o n o t c o n s t i t u t e a d i s c i p l i n e , b u t t h e r e is n o d e n y i n g a Ion-; history o f m e t h o d o l o g i e s which themselves require theoretical

underpinning

to j u s t i f y t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e . D i s c i p l i n e s e s t a b l i s h k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h i n g s a n d a s s u c h a r e j u s t i f i e d in t h e i r own right; m e t h o d o l o g i e s a r e o n l y m e a n s to an e n d , in t h e c a s e o f t e r m i n o l o g y , how to d o t h i n g s . T h e n e e d f o r a methotiolojgy o f terminological data processing has g r o w n l a r g e l y in r e s p o n s e to t h e i n f o r m a t i o n e x p l o s i o n w h i c h led to i n c r e a s e d c o n c e r n with a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n a t i o n s lor the many new c o n c e p t s c r e a t e d , e s p e cially in s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o l o g y , and to a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t in e l i e c t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . A f t e r b e i n g the e x c l u s i v e d o m a i n o f a few t h e o r e t i c i a n s a n d d i v e r s e s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t s f o r m a n y d e c a d e s , t e r m i n o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e w;,s

f o r g e d i n t o a c o h e r e n t m e t h o d o l o g y w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t i n g t h e o r i e s by the persistent efforts o f a small g r o u p o f a c a d e m i c s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s .

Once

such a body of k n o w l e d g e had b e e n a s s e m b l e d which scholars c o u l d

agree

u p o n ,to h a v e its o w n t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n , o b j e c t i v e s a n d m e t h o d o l o g y , it c o u l d b e d e s c r i b e d as a s u b j e c t field a n d t a u g h t t o p o s t g r a d u a t e a n d u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . C o u r s e s in t e r m i n o l o g y a r c n o w b e i n g o f f e r e d in a n u m b e r o f E u r o p e a n a n d A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h o u t , h o w e v e r , as yet t h e s u p p o r t of adequate textbooks.

T h e p r e s e n t v o l u m e p r o p o s e s t o fill this g a p f o r t h e

English language.

1.2

Definition

T e r m i n o l o g y h a s m a n y a n c e s t o r s , is r e l a t e d t o m a n y d i s c i p l i n e s a n d is o f p r a c tical c o n c e r n t o all s t u d e n t s o f s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s a n d l a n g u a g e s . It is, t h e r e f o r e , a p p r o p r i a t e at this s t a g e o f its e m a n c i p a t i o n a s an i n d e p e n d e n t p r a c t i c e a n d field o f s t u d y t o d e l i m i t it a n d t o r e l a t e it t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e s in w h i c h it

finds

application. A l t h o u g h e s s e n t i a l l y l i n g u i s t i c a n d s e m a n t i c in its r o o t s , t e r m i n o l o g y f o u n d a m o r e r e c e n t m o t i v a t i o n in t h e b r o a d field o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t u d i e s , w h i c h may b e d e s c r i b e d as a m o d e r n e x t e n s i o n o f the m e d i a e v a l trivium o f logic, g r a m m a r a n d r h e t o r i c . W i t h t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n t e r m i n o l o g y c a n c l a i m t o b e truly interdisciplinary.

It is v i t a l t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f all s c i e n c e s , it is c o n c e r n e d

with d e s i g n a t i o n s in all o t h e r s u b j e c t fields, a n d it is c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o a n u m b e r o f s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s , a s a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t by its m o s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d m o d e r n p r o t a g o n i s t , E . W i i s t e r . H e c a l l e d it a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y field o f s t u d y , r e l a t i n g linguistics, logic, o n t o l o g y a n d i n f o r m a t i o n s c i e n c e with the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t fields.

T h e c o m m o n e l e m e n t a m o n g t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s is t h a t t h e y a r e e a c h

c o n c e r n e d , at l e a s t in p a r t , w i t h t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e x r e l a tionships b e t w e e n c o n c e p t s and t e r m s . S i n c e t e r m i n o l o g y is c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o n c e p t s , t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s a n d n a m e s , it is o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o b e g i n a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the subject. ( T e r m i n o l o g y is t h e s t u d y o f a n d t h e

field

o f a c t i v i t y c o n c e r n e d with t h e

c o l l e c t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , p r o c e s s i n g a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t e r m s , i.e. l e x i c a l i t e m s b e l o n g i n g to s p e c i a l i s e d a r e a s o f u s a g e o f o n e o r m o r e l a n g u a g e s ; In its o b j e c t i v e s it is a k i n to l e x i c o g r a p h y w h i c h c o m b i n e s t h e d o u b l e a i m o f g e n e r a l l y c o l l e c t i n g d a t a a b o u t t h e l e x i c o n o f a l a n g u a g e w i t h p r o v i d i n g an i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d s o m e t i m e s e v e n a n a d v i s o r y , s c r v i c c to l a n g u a g e usct*s\ T h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n

Introduction: What Is l'crininolog\ ? o f c o n s i d e r i n g it a s e p a r a t e a c t i v i t y f r o m

l e x i c o g r a p h y lies in t h e

ditferent

n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s e m b l e d , t h e d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d o f the p e o p l e i n v o l v e d in t h i s w o r k , a n d t o s o m e e x t e n t in t h e d i f f e r e n t

methods

used. [lEtymologically speaking ' t e r m i n o l o g y '

is a p o l y s e m o u s m i s n o m e r ,

i.e. a

w o r d w i t h s e v e r a l s e n s e s , n o n e o f w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d precisely to the analysis o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m e a n i n g o f its c o n s t i t u e n t

elements.

^ B y its e t y m o l o g y ' t e r m i n o l o g y ' w d u l d m e a n ' t h e

scicnce/study/knowledgc

o f t e r m s ' w h i c h w o u l d m a k e it p a r a l l e l t o l e x i c o l o g y , t h e s c i e n c e / s t u d y , k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l e x i c o n o r l e x i c a l i t ^ m s ; t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is, h o w e v e r , r e j e c t e d by most terminologists.

Historically, tlu

first u s a g e o f ' t e r m i n o l o g y ' is r e c o r d e d

as r e f e r r i n g to a t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y , i.e. a c o l l e c t i o n o f terms, which has a c e r t a i n c o h e r e n c e b y t h e f a c t t b a t t h e t e r m s b e l o n g t o a s i n g l e s u b j e c t a r e a . It is n o w a l s o u s e d s o m e w h a t m o i r e n a r r o w l y t o r e f e r t o a n i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t a n d c o h e r e n t s e t o f t e r m s b e l o n g i n g t o a s i n g l e s u b j e c t f i e l d , as i d e n t i f i e d a s a result o f a particular t e r m i n o l o g i c a l activity, e.g. the c o m p i l a t i o n o f s y s t e m a t i c g l o s s a r i e s ! In c o n t e m p o r a r y u s a g e it is n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h r e e m e a n i n g s o f the word:

1

1., t h e a c t i v i t y d e f i n e d in t h e first p a r a g r a p h , i . e . t h e s e t o f p r a c t i c e s a n d m e t h ods used for the c o l l e c t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n and presentation of terms: 2 . a t h e o r y , i . e . t h e s e t o f p r e m i s e s , a r g u m e n t s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s r e q u i r e d for cxpla ining the relationships b e t w e e n c o n c e p t s and terms'which are fundam e n t a l f o r a c o h e r e n t a c t i v i t y u n d e r 1; 3. a v o c a b u l a r y o f a s p e c i a l s u b j e c t

field.

In its first t w o m e a n i n g s t h e w o r d i's a n o n - c o u n t a b l e n o u n ; in its t h i r d it is countable and can have a plural form.

1.3

Terminology and related

Like any other methodology,

disciplines terminology

f i e l d s a n d a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y it s e r v e s ;

is a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by t h e

it h a s t h e r e f o r e b e e n d e s c r i b e d

i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i v i t y r a t h e r t h a n a s u b j e c t in its o w n r i g h t .

subject as an

It is d i s t i n c t

f r o m g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c s in t h a t it h a s its o w n t h e o r i e s o f t h e l e x i c o n o f a l a n g u a g e a n d its p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d o l o g y f o u n d e d 0:1 t h e s e t h e o r i e s . p r e s e n t e d in c h a p t e r s t w o a n d t h r e e o f t h i s b o o k ) .

( T h e s e arc

T h e s e t h e o r i e s , like anv

o t h e r h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e , a r e i n f l u e n c e d , h o w e v e r , by d i s c o v e r i e s , v i e w s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y in o t h e r a r e a s o f k n o w l e d g e .

Differ-

ent c o m p a r t m e n t a l isat i o n s o f k n o w l e d g e a l s o l e a d t o s h if is in t h e p e r c e p t i o n o !

t e r m i n o l o g y . R e c e n t l y , f o r e x a m p l e , A p p l i e d l i n g u i s t i c s in its c o n c e r n w i t h t h e analysis and t e a c h i n g of special s u b j e c t l a n g u a g e s — f r e q u e n t l y called 105

LSP—

h a s laid c l a i m to t e r m i n o l o g y as t h a t p a r t o f l i n g u i s t i c s w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e lexicon o f special languages.

B e c a u s e t e r m i n o l o g y has a n e e d for a subject

c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d h a s u s e d t h e c o n c e p t o f t h c s a u r a l s t r u c t u r e it h a s b e e n l i n k e d with i n f o r m a t i o n s c i e n c e ^ ' T h e r e is l i t t l e t o b e g a i n e d f r o m e x p l o r i n g s u c h l i n k s a n d l e s s in s u b s e q u e n t

attribution of percentages of

interdisciplinary

110 c o n n e c t i o n s f T h e c o n c e p t s a n d m e t h o d s t e r m i n o l o g y g e n u i n e l y b o r r o w s f r o m o t h e r s u b j e c t fields a n d d i s c i p l i n e s a r e o f a r a t h e r g e n e r a l n a t u r e . F r o m p h i l o s o p h y a n d c p i s t e m o l o g y it h a s t a k e n t h e o r i e s a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f k n o w l e d g e , c o n c e p t f o r m a t i o n , t h e n a t u r e o f d e f i n i t i o n s , e t c . ; f r o m p s y c h o l o g y it has b o r r o w e d t h e o r i e s o f p e r c e p t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e t c . ; 115

f r o m l i n g u i s t i c s it h a s b o r r o w e d t h e o r i e s a b o u t t h e l e x i c o n a n d its s t r u c t u r e and f o r m a t i o n ; with l e x i c o g r a p h y ,

finally,

it s h a r e s m e t h o d s o f s t r u c t u r i n g a n d

d e s c r i b i n g w o r d s a s well a s e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n about words. T h i s w i d e r c o n n e c t i o n o f t e r m i n o l o g y is r e f l e c t e d in t h e d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n by X20

t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e r m i n o l o g y in 1 9 8 2 : 'Terminology is c o n c e r n e d with the study and use o f the systems o f symbols and linguistic signs employed for human c o m m u n i c a t i o n in specialised areas o f knowledge and activities. It is primarily a linguistic discipline—linguistics being interpreted here in its widest possible s e n s e — w i t h e m p h a s i s on s e m a n t i c s (systems o f meanings

125

and concepts) and pragmatics.

It is intcr-disciplinary in the sense that it also

borrows c o n c e p t s and methods from s e m i o t i c s , epistemology, classification, etc. It is closely linked to the subject fields w h o s e Icxica it describes and for which it seeks to provide assistance in the o r d e r i n g and use o f designations.

Although

terminology has been in the past mostly c o n c e r n c d with the lexical aspects of spc130

cialised languages, its scopc extends to syntax and phonology. In its applied aspcct terminology is related to lexicography and uses techniques of information scicncc and technology." T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , t h o u g h f o r m u l a t e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y in o r d e r t o r e c o n c i l e t h e many diverse views on the s u b j e c t , has n e v e r t h e l e s s given rise to c o n s i d e r a b l e

135

discussion and c o n t r o v e r s y . ( ^ T e r m i n o l o g y is n o w a s s o c i a t e d g e n e r a l l y w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s w h i c h r e q u i r e t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t e r m s in o r d e r to c o m p i l e d i c t i o n a r i e s a n d g l o s s a r i e s a n d m o r e r e c e n t l y e n t r i e s in t e r m b a n k s . In this s e n s e t e r m i n o l o g y h a s u n d e r g o n e a r a d i c a l c h a n g e in r e c e n t years.'; U n t i l

140

d a t a b a s e t e c h n o l o g y b e c a m e a v a i l a b l e , d i c t i o n a r y a n d g l o s s a r y p r o d u c t i o n was like that o f any o t h e r b o o k p r o d u c t i o n :

pen and paper or typewriter

and

Introduction: eventually printing.

What h

Terminology.'

N o w t e r m i n o l o g y c o l k c t i o n a n d p r o c e s s i n g is a

^mi-

a u t o m a t i c p r o c c s s , c o n s t a n t l y r e s p o n d i n g t o i n n o v a t i o n s b o r r o w e d ( r o m inf o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y , information scicncc and computational linguistics. 1 he 145 p r i n c i p l e s a n d m e t h o d s o f t e r m i n o l o g y p r o c e s s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , m u s t b e u n d e r s t o o d a s t h e c u r r c n l s t a t e o f t h e art rn this f i e l d ; t h e y d o n o t c l a i m a w i d e r v a l i d i t y , e v e n t h o u g h s o m e a r c likely t o p r o v e o f a m o r e p e r m a n e n t

natutc.

M e t h o d s o f w o r k a r c a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s p c c i a l s u b j e e l m a t t e r a n d t r a d i t i o n s a n d p r a c t i c e s that e x i s t in e a c h a r e a .

the

T h e international nature ol

iso a g r e a t d e a l o f b i o l o g i c a l a n d m e d i c a l n o m e n c l a t u r e , f o r e x a m p l e , h a s d e t e r m i n e d w h a t type of t e r m i n o l o g y processing c a n usefully be u n d e r t a k e n . T h e r e h a s a l s o b e e n a s h i f t in t h e t y p e o f p e o p l e w o r k i n g in t e r m i n o l o g y . U n t i l r e c e n t l y t e r m i n o l o g y c o l l e c t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g was a l m o s t

exclusively

c a r r i c d o u t b y s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t s w o r k i n g in t h e i r o w n f i e l d s a n d l i t t l e c o n t a c t 155 e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e m . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e r m b a n k s w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b\ . t h e c r e a t i o n o f a substantial group of professionals w h o could be as p r a c t i c a l t e r m i n o l o g i s t s .

identified

O n c e s u c h a p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p is c r e a t e d

there

is t h e n a n i n c e n t i v e a n d an o p p o r t u n i t y o f h a r m o n i s a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s a n d techniques. 160

L a s t l y , c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e h a s b e e n c x e r c i s e d by s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n b o d i e s w h o f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s h a v e b e e n c n g a g e o in e f f o r t s to a c h i e v e t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e a g r e e m e n t in m a t t e r s o f t e r m i n o l o g y p r o c e s s i n g . ' A . n u m b e r o f c o u n t r i e s , n o t a b l y in E u r o p e , h a v e d e v e l o p e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n , d e f i n i -

165

tion a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of technical c o n c e p t s and s o m e have even

attempted

10 p r o d u c e f u n d a m e n t a l d o c u m e n t s w h i c h s e t o u t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l

foundation

o f t h e i r w o r k . T h i s t y p e o f a c t i v i t y is, h o w e v e r , h e a v i l y l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e d e p e n d e n t ; it is, t h e r e f o r e , n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t little i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n m a d e in d e v e l o p i n g s t a n d a r d i s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y a p p l i c a b l e for the processing of terminology.

guidelines

GLOSSARY Term in Spanish

Page Line

150

Nomenclatura biologica

18

17

143-144

Prestamos de informaci6n tecnol6gica

18

8-9

Term in English

Page Line

Biological nomenclature

5

Borrowed from information technology

,:5

Collection

1

18

Recopilaci6n

12

2

Collection of information about terms

4

137

Recopilacion de informacion de terminos

17

27

Computational linguistics

1

16-17

Ungtlistica computacional

11

27

Contemporary teaching programme'

1

12-13

Programas contemporaneos de ensefianza

11

21-22

Context of linguistics

1

16

Contexto linguistico

11

26

Creation of terms

1

18

Creacion de terminos

12

2

Electronic media

1

19

Medios de comunicacion electr6nicos

12

3-4

Explication

1

18

Explicacion

12

2

Field of communication studies

2

47

Campo de los estudios de comunicacion

13

14

Information science

1

16

Ciencia de la informacion

11

, 26-27

Information services

4

36-37

Servicios informativos

17

26

Interdisciplinary connections

4

109-110

Conexiones interdisciplinarias

16

17

Interdisciplinary field of study

2

53

Campo de estudio interdisciplinario

13

23

Lexical aspects of specialised languages

4

121-130

Aspectos lexicos de las lenguas especializadas

17

17-18

Linguistic discipline

4

123

Disciplina linguistica

Linguistic signs Medical nomenclature

4 5

121-122

Signos lingUisticos

17 17

8 5

150

Nomenclatura medica

18

17

7

Marco teorico nuevo

11

14-15

19

Presentacion

12

3

Original theoretical framework Presentacion

1

1

Term in English

Page Line

Term in Spanish

Page Line

Principles and methods of terminology processing

5

145

Principios y metodos de procesamiento terminologicos

18

Printed media

1

19

Medios de comunicacion impresos

12

3-4

Self-contained area of application

1

9-10

Area de aplicacion autonoma

11

17

Semiautomatic process

5

142-143

Proceso semiautomcitico

18

7-8

Special languages

1

8

Lenguas especializadas

11

16

Subject field

2

35

Area tematica

15

3-4

Systems of symbols

4

121

Sistemas de simbolo;!

17

5

Techniques of information science and technology

4

TScnicas de la ciencia de la informaci6n y la tecnologia

17

20-21

Terminology

1

Terminologia

11

16

Bancos terminologicos

18

1-2

12-13

131-132

Term banks

4

Terminological data processing

1

Theoretical underpinnings Theories of perception

4

Procesamiento de datos terminologicos

12

25 21

Fundamentos teoricos

12

114

Teorias de la percepci6n

16

138

10-11

23

Jt--

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A.

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La

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1993, pp. 873

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1976, ed. Pueblo y educacion,

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Barreiro SSnchez, .Manuel A.

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Caballero,

Leandro.

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e

aspectos

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en

de

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taller

Pontificia

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Universidad

No. 18, 1990

Chamberlain, Jordana. Diccionario

Collins

la

de teoria de la traduccidn. La Habana, 1981

Ileana en

su

"Acerca

English

collins publishers, pp. 1703

nauta espanol-ingl6s, pp. 409

language

dictionary,

1987,

Harper

Hatim Basil

and Mason

Ian. Discourse

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the translator,

1991,

ed. Longman, New York, pp. 352

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1986, pp. 506

Lopez Garcia, Angel. Diccionario lengua espanola,

de sindnimos y antonimos

de la

ed. Ortells, pp. 1114

Moliner, Maria. Diccionario

de uso del espanol, 1991, ed. Gredos

Newmark, Peter. About Translation, 1991, pp. 183

Newmark, Peter. Approaches

Newmark,

Perer.

A

to Translation, 1981, pp. 200

textbook

of

Translation,

1988,

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"A

framework

translation",

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translation

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applications

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Randolph,

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Svartulk.

A

grammar

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contemporary

english, 1972, ed. Longman, pp. 1120

Reiss,

K.

"Teorias

de

la

traducci6n

y

su

relevancia

para

la

practica", en Sendebar, No. 3, 1992, pp. 25-37

Sager,

Juan

C.

A

practical

course

in

terminology

1990, ed. John Benjamin publishing company, pp. 253

processing,

Seco, Manuel.

Diccionario

de dudas y dificvltades

de

la

lengua

espafiola, 1992, ed. Espasa, pp. 554

Torrents, Alfonso. Diccionario

de dificultades

del ingl&s,

1976,

ed. Juventud, pp. 670

Vazquez bAsico

Ayora,

Gerardo.

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Vega Cernuda.

Introduccidn

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curso

ed. Indira Stgo. Le6n, pp. 465, pag. 116

Introduccidn

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3.3

de Fedorov a Nord, pasando por Mounin con parada en Meschonnic: La Edad Moderna de teoria de la traducci6n, 1994

Webster, Merriam. Webter's ninth new collegiate

dictionary,

1989,

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Webster, Merriam. Dictionary

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G.

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