Historia universal en el siglo XX

Marshall Plan. Vietnam war. Star wars. Stalin

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Historia Universal II (Historia del siglo XX)
Historia Universal II (Historia del siglo XX) Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas División de Historia Semestre primavera-verano 2013 Martes

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INTERNATIONAL PANORAMA EVENT

YEAR STEPS

ACTORS

Revolution Depression * 17−45 Wartime Comrades Alliances

Anticommunist forces, Germany, Russia Stalin, Roosevelt, Hitler, Churchill

Summits

CAUSES

EFFECTS Joseph Stalin rises to Lenin's death, power, make the Great intent to oust the Purge Bolsheviks Soviet Union's five−year Great depression plans for economic of 29 development by Stalin. New Deal by Roosevelt The non−aggression Start the Second World pact with Berlin. War German troops Stalingrad´s battle storm into Poland, invade Russia Soviets will attack Japan once Germany is defeated. "Big Three" Soviet and U.S. troops meeting in Yalta meet cutting Germany in two. Roosevelt's death US drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

* Iron curtain

45−47 Homecomings Conquered divided

Allies, Germany

End of the war

Truman rises to power in US Japan is destroyed. End of the World War II. American economy and government was revitalized. Troops come home

Stalin, Truman, Churchill Germany is divided in Four occupation zones Soviet control by Allies setting Germans are expelled from Allies countries up a sector in Berlin Warnings Soviets created a series of Truman's doctrine Communist and satellite states. capitalist looks US was alert. Declaration for control of Churchill, and Truman Stalin commented in college in Fulton that said that the political and that capitalism and imperialism ideological divide between made future wars the Soviets and the West inevitable. as the Cold War began. Churchill's "Iron The tensions grow Curtain" speech between the Soviet Union and former allies 1

Truman shows his new Truman Doctrine * Marshall 47−52 Post War Europe Truman, Europe, George Europe was in Many in Western Europe Marshall, Russia chaos, national plan considered communism as Truman Doctrine economies remain an end to the hard life and in ruin injustices George Marshall Britain informs to US authorize $400 million The Plan that London is in aid for Turkey and ending aid to Greece. Truman establish Coup Greece and a clear distinction between Turkey the capitalist and Aid to Europe communist George Marshall Fear and gone whit the The talks in Moscow go Response other allies in nowhere. Moscow, in an attempt to Russia accuses the West of determine the working to divide Europe future of into two hostile camps then−occupied Germany. A communist coup topples the government of The Marshall Czechoslovakia Plan offers billions of dollars Many dollars back into the in U.S. aid to American economy European countries The Soviet Union put its including those eyes on Italy and France. under Soviet US was afraid that Italy occupation. could change to the communism and started a Soviets campaign of covert established operations from the newly COMECON, the formed CIA. Democracy Warsaw Pact's won in Italy version of an economic trading bloc. The Marshall agency spends $13.5 billion in 16 countries. In turn, Europe's purchase of U.S. goods and machinery brings The Soviet Union urges its 2

communist colleagues in Western Europe to take action against the Marshall Plan. The Nazis' once−proud capital, reduced to a pile of rubble by Allied anger, is down to its bare essentials. * Berlin

48−49 The Western Allies impose a counter−blockade on the Soviet zone. The Soviets hope to starve the West out of Berlin

* Korea

49−53 Both North Korean leader Kim Il Sung and his South Korean counterpart, Syngman Rhee, dreamed of reunifying the peninsula under their respective

Soviet troops harass West Berliners who go to the eastern zone. And in September, a communist attempt to take over the The Berlin airlift Divided germany city council sparks mass brings a new protests −− which end in Currency reform mindset to the violence. Western Allies, Airlift who start thinking At least 79 people, of West Germany including 31 Americans, New allies west east as an ally, rather 39 British and nine than an occupied Germans, had lost their Blockade ends territory. lives, mostly in plane crashes. But the confrontation proved to be only the opening act in the decades−long Cold War. The surrender of The United States took The conflict on the Korean peninsula with the Japan at the end advantage of a Soviet of World War II boycott of the United interview of Germany, also meant an end Nations to have the U.N. China, U.S.S.R. and Security Council condemn to 35 years of U.S.A. North Korean aggression Japanese occupation in −− and create a U.N. Korea. As they had in Germany, military force that would defend South Korea. Soviet

governments. But Kim acted first. He pleaded with Stalin, who −− after first

and U.S. troops liberated Korea −− and agreed to divide the nation along

rejecting the idea −− helped North Korean forces plan for the invasion of

the 38th parallel as a temporary measure.

the South. In November 1950, after

But as both sides withdrew their troops, they also set up rival governments,

Stalin also was heartened by the communist victory in China in 1949 and believed it was time to open an Asian front against capitalism. On June 25, 1950, the North Korean army rolled south in a surprise assault. By the summer of 1951 armistice talks began. It wasn't until July 1953, 3

repeated warnings through diplomatic channels, China

creating the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the North, and the

attacked −− sending the surprised U.N. forces reeling southward.

Republic of Korea in the South.

Hollywood Whitch hunts USSR and USA

47−53 Rosenbergs Conformity Stalin

* After Stalin

53−56 Stalin East Germany, nato/polan, Hungary crackdown.

Stalin, that a cease−fire was finally agreed to. Despite the armistice, the Korean peninsula remains divided to this day −− and a potential global flashpoint. Dead or dissapeer of important people of the countries.

Fear

* Reds

after months of pointless fighting and the death of Soviet dictator Joseph

Nikita Khrushchev, Walter Ulbricht, Konrad Adenauer, Britain and France, Imre Nagy.

To influence the USSR erected walls in the nations about the cities to close theirs limits. communism by massive Dead of Stalin campaigns. USSR obtained the secrets to make nuclear weapons and guns. In 1953, the death Nikita Khrushchev, would of Soviet dictator soon rise to the top of the Soviet hierarchy. Anger Joseph Stalin creates a power over strict production quotas boiled over in June vacuum in the 1953. In September 1953, Kremlin's leadership. It also Konrad. unleashes a wave Adenauer was re−elected of unrest in Eastern Europe, chancellor of West Germany. With U.S. as some Soviet satellites test the backing, Adenauer persuaded Britain and limits of France to allow West Moscow's tolerance. DEAD Germany into NATO, the Western military alliance. OF STALIN Students in Hungary's AND A capital of Budapest VACUUM OF launched a more serious POWER. challenge to Soviet rule, Hungarians believed they had won their revolution. Thousands were killed in the crackdown. Nagy was arrested and eventually executed. Two hundred 4

thousand Hungarians fled the country. Khrushchev had re−enforced the Iron Curtain. The start of the nuclear arms race between the Cold War rivals. U−2 was shot down by the Soviet military. Duck−Cover, Sputnik Catch−Up, * Sputnik 49−61 U−2, Disaster/

United States, USSR, Dwight Eisenhower, Werner von Braun,

United States, Sovietic Union, Dwight Eisenhower, Werner von Braun,

On April 12, 1961, Gagarin achieved international acclaim when he became the first human to be launched into space. They tested the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile in May 1957.

Triumph And on October 4 of that year they surprised the world by launching Sputnik −− the world's first satellite. For years, West Khrushchev issued a new United States, West * The wall 58−63 Berlin demand, calling on the Berlin was an Berlin, East Germany, escape route for Western powers to Khrushche, Khrushchev, withdraw from Berlin, he Eisenhower−Khrushchev, East Germans met with President seeking to flee German leader Walter East Germany communism. But Eisenhower. Ulbricht, John F. growing Cold The Wall Divided. Kennedy, A second War tensions forced the Soviet Eisenhower−Khrushchev summit collapsed, Every bloc to erect a deadly blockade month, thousands of East across the city −− Germans fled across the open Berlin border and a Wall that divided Berlin for took refuge in the West. , nearly three Kennedy's attempted decades. invasion of Castro's Cuba, at the Bay of Pigs, failed miserably. On the morning of August 13, 1961, East German and Soviet troops sealed the East Berlin side of the border, closing crossing points and erecting barricades.

5

Berlin was divided. the Wall remained a symbol of the Cold War's cruelty and Europe's division. Complete trade embargo against Cuba.

* Cuba

Revolution

Defeat Batista.

Nationalization

Nationalized the U.S.−owned refineries

Bay Of Pigs

USA,Cuba, USSR,

Missile Crisis

Batista, JFK, Castro

59−62 Castro takes government.

At The Brink Cuba decides buy oil to USSR

A Way Out

* Vietnam 54−68 Divided Iron fists Overthrow Gulf of ton kin Escalation Quagmire

Vietnam USA

Cubans leave their country. USA invades cuba. Cuba resists and attack Usa army. Cuba wins. USSR helps Cuba giving missiles that are discovered.

USA promises not attack Cuba, they make a deal and panic is over. Missiles are retired from Cuba and peace come back. Kennedy sent American The nationalist movement led by military advisers to South Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh While the people of Saigon initially responded with enthusiasm to Diem's overthrow, the coup left the country with no clear President John F. leader. Kennedy, after The incident prompted suffering a Johnson to push the Gulf setback against the communists in of Ton kin Resolution Cuba and trying through Congress. The measure allowed LBJ to to control the crisis in Berlin, wage war in Vietnam. The wanted to show war cost thousand morelifes. U.S. resolve in Asia. the primitive but highly effective supply line that linked North Vietnam with its fighters and supporters in the South. But the Groups such as the Viet Cong were encouraged by Moscow. U.S.

6

* Mad

* Make love, not war

tactic failed. With Cold War tensions heightening at the The consecuences in this start of the 1960s, period, final with the the superpowers creation of anti−missils are drawn into an On alert, buildup, between the two nations escalating arms close call, The United States and the EUA and USSR, because 60−72 race. deterrence, USSR (John f. Kennedy) they need a protection anti−missiles after the desarmy in Cuba, The world's safety they want to maintain the depends on a peace in his own nations nuclear paradox with the anti−missils known as "mutual assured destruction." Young men of draft age Kennedy was John F. Kennedy 60´S Kennedy's were turning on, tuning in assassinated in Election November 1963. and dropping out. George Wallace Economic American ideals Protests against the war Edgar Hoover depression were growing, some black of political activists trained as freedom were Discrimination paramilitaries in what they now being extended into the saw as a civil war against a Kennedy's death racist police force personal realm The Cold War, and the war While some Americans went in Vietnam off to war in Vietnam, others were challenging what was termed "the Establishment." The protesters gathered in city parks in preparation for a march on the convention hall. But Chicago Mayor Richard Daley had no intention of allowing them to take over the convention . On the day the Democrats were due to nominate 7

* Red spring

* China

60´S

49−72

their presidential candidate, the demonstrators battled with police. In the 1960s, as dissent and protest swept through the West, nations of the Warsaw Pact were experimenting with reforms. But khrushchev, hopes for change Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet Catching up, were crushed by people, Leonid Brezhnev, Ouster/Unrest, palace coups and, Czechoslovak, Alexander Red Spring, Bear in the case of Dubcek. Claw. Czechoslovakia, outright invasion.

China's new rulers embarked on radical land reforms

China

One million people lost their lives.

* Détente 69−75

* Good and bad guys

SLOW DOWN COMP

67−78 NIXON PRESIDENT

All the world

Richard Nixon

: Khrushchev boasted the U.S.S.R. would overtake America in production of meat, milk and grain. More and more Russians, meanwhile, were getting a taste of such amenities as the company picnic −− and paid vacations at resorts run by the Communist Party and trade unions. In October 1964, Khrushchev was deposed. Stability was restored in the Soviet Union. One of the first Actors: Nikita changes in Czechoslovakia Khrushchev, that year was an end to Soviet people, censorship. The Leonid Brezhnev, Czechoslovak experiment, Czechoslovak, the most daring attempt to Alexander marry communism with Dubcek. democracy, had failed. China feared an attack on Led by Mao its own territory. In Tse−tung, the conclusion what we can communists say is that the war between establish the People's Republic oriental countries and the Americans and Europe of China. countries was a terrible success Actors: Soviet leaders The most public symbol of hoped to the new relationship guarantee the U.S.S.R.'s security between the rival and world−power superpowers was the Apollo−Soyuz project. In status with a treaty that would space, cooperation was recognize the replacing years of Cold postwar division War confrontation. of Europe The Cold War The Arab threat from takes on a new Egypt against Israel had dimension as the become intense, Nasser Soviet Union, the and the Arab states wanted United States and to destroy Israel but the 8

their allies become involved in wars between rivals in Africa and the Middle East.

Soviet Union did not.(1967) For the Soviets, better ties with America outweighed Moscow's commitments to the Arabs. Against Moscow's advice, Somalia prepared for war with Ethiopia.

* 54−90 ANTI−WAR Backyard

* Freeze

Nixon

77−81 DÉTENTE Communist Party RECOGNITION

After World War II, growing nationalism in Central and South America led to greater resentment against the United States.

Che Guevara −− who went to Mexico, where he met Cuban rebel leader Fidel Castro. Arbenz wasn't a communist, but some of his allies were. The superpower struggle in Central America had given In 1950, Jacobo way to a quiet revolution Arbenz was voted at the ballot box. Guatemala's president. Arms Talks: The Looking for a governors of the two Panacea that nations made a meet for could stops the Cold War, USA solve all the frictions between the countries in and the Soviet Union promised order to protect the human rights establish the limits to reduce the tensions reducing of the arsenals. and controling the Human Rights: A reason arms. for the aparent relax was the brutal break of the human rights, like in mental hospitals, where mind−control drugs were used to make them recant. Salt II: The Salt II was the negotiation for a new arms limitation that paid special atention to the new medium−range nuclear missile. Malaise: The people from the two sides feel bad with the desicion, especially 9

because it didn't do what was promised. Solidarity: As support for Solidarity spread throughout the world, the movement became increasingly defiant. Moscow watched with growing alarm.

* Soldiers 75−88 DIPLOMATIC of god GAMES

Henry Kissinger, were the In the 1970s, architects of the new U.S. Afghanistan became a focus of superpower rivalry. Geographically strategic −− near Persian Gulf oil and Indian Ocean ports, and bordering the Soviet Central Asian republics −− a friendly Afghanistan was vital to Moscow's interests.

Martial law: On December 2, 1981, in a warning to Solidarity, riot police crushed a firemen's strike. Ten days later, Solidarity met to plan a nationwide strike. But that night, the Polish government sent in the army, arrested Solidarity's leaders and banned the trade movement. Jaruzelski declared martial law, suspending civil rights. Moscow had reimposed its will. East−West relations were fractured once more. Coup: The Soviet Union sent hundreds of advisers to Kabul following an April 1978 military coup that brought a left−wing regime to power. But a group of rebels called themselves the Mujahedeen, or Soldiers of God were mostly peasants, organized by village mullahs and landowners, with weapons captured from the communists. But a lot of musulmans deserted each month. Invasion: Hafizullah Amin, launched a campaign of terror, then flew to Moscow to talk with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev about how to curb Amin's excesses, but 10

he was discovered and the executed. And with the coperation of some leaders, Urss invede Afghanistan. Response: In a secret way, Us sent its money and troops to help Afghanistan and make a real resistance, but that was always in a secret way sending the supplies trough other countries. Civil War: The real fight was released, the Soviets took the control and bombed all the territory, always trying to cut the Mujahedeen's escape routes.

* Spies

45−90 VIETMAN AGREE

Hanoi had presented Kissinger with a draft

The Cold War was fought on

Withdrawal: The war in Afghanistan was taking its toll on the Soviets. With increasing ruthlessness and daring, the Mujahedeen attacked Soviet convoys bringing oil and weapons to their army. As many as 2,000 Soviets were killed each year. In March 1985, an energetic new leader took power in the Kremlin. As Mikhail Gorbachev met crowds around the country, opposition to the war could finally be expressed. Gorbachev told the United Nations that the Soviets would consider withdrawing from Afghanistan under a U.N. agreement. Afghanistan was to endure more years of bloodshed. Although the Soviet troop withdrawal was completed by February 1989. Unknown to one another, scientists Klaus Fuchs and 11

agreement

* Star wars

80−88 A NEW As Vietnam came under RELATIONSHIP communist control

two fronts. In Ted Hall both passed on public, it was a details of how to detonate series of nuclear weapons by confrontations "implosion" −− a principle and crises. But so new to Soviet science the East and West that there was no also battled in the equivalent word in shadows, as Russian. The intelligence intelligence war was lopsided. The agents risked their CIA dug a long tunnel lives to steal under the Soviet sector to secrets. tap telephone cables. Penkovsky revealed the Soviets' lack of atomic warheads and their problems with guidance systems. He provided information that proved critical to the United States during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. On February 21, 1994, nearly five years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Ames was arrested for spying, along with his wife, Rosario, after years of high living. During his nearly nine years on the KGB payroll, Ames was paid $2.7 million. He identified 25 CIA agents in the Soviet Union, 10 of whom were executed In 1981, Ronald First with the decision of Reagan for make a new Reagan −− a army with more power for strident Cold Warrior −− enters his country, he try to make the White House a deal with the urss. With on a platform of the war and the fight in the "making America iron curtain appear the strong again." human rights and this contributed for stopped the Convinced the United States is creation of more arm, the name of the deal was lagging in the arms race, Reagan saltII. increases defense The "Star Wars" plan said spending and proposes a "Star "All attempts at achieving military superiority over Wars" the U.S.S.R. are futile,". anti−missile system −− 12

* The wall comes 89 down

Economic reforms had met with George Bush disaster, and the Communist Party USSR was losing control.

alarming leaders The meeting ended in Moscow. without an agreement −− but each delegation realized the discussions had crossed a historic line. In 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev in Washington to sign the Intermediate−range Nuclear Forces Treaty eliminating an entire class of U.S. and Soviet nuclear arms . Reagan's defense of "Star Wars" prevented further progress in arms talks for the remainder of his presidency. Economic reforms had met with disaster, and the Communist Party was losing control. The Poles, like the Hungarians, were breaking with the communist system, In June, elections were held, The economy was running down, The refugees could go to West Germany, but For nearly three only if their train crossed decades, the East German territory Berlin Wall first., Weekly symbolized the demonstrations in Leipzig Iron Curtain that soon swelled into mass separated East protests. from West. But by 1989, the Wall Gorbachev suggested to was starting to Honecker that the way to crumble −− and stop public protest by the end of the engulfing his government year it would would be to introduce a collapse. German version of perestroika. West Berliners arrived from the other direction and began to demolish the Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate. Across the Wall, two worlds had faced each other in arms.

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