Rechargeable Batteries and Solid

State of the art of Li-ion Li ion Rechargeable Batteries and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells(SOFC) B By Santander Nieto Ramos, PhD Institute of Physical Chemi

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State of the art of Li-ion Li ion Rechargeable Batteries and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells(SOFC) B By

Santander Nieto Ramos, PhD Institute of Physical Chemical Applied Research (IPCAR) UT.

May 14, 2010

Cathode Materials for Li-ion Rechargeable Batteries By

Santander Nieto Ramos, PhD Institute of Physical Chemical Applied Research (IPCAR) UT.

May 14, 2010

What is the IPCAR? IPCAR IInstitute IPCAR: i off Ph Physical i l Chemical Ch i l Applied A li d Energy Storage Dr. Rolando Roque

Director: Dr Rolando Roque

Rechargeable Lithium ion Batteries and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) Dr. Santander Nieto Nanomaterials Dr Francisco Márquez and Dr. Dr. José Duconge

Research Team •María Cotto •Carmen Bonilla •Abraham García •Carlos Neira •Francisco Díaz

•Dr. Rolando Roque •Dr. Francisco Márquez •Dr. Santander Nieto •Dr. José Duconge •Dr Dr. Agustín Ríos •Ing. Ramón Polanco

I Important t t collaborations ll b ti •SPCLAB: SPCLAB: Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. y y Campus p •Universityy of Puerto Rico,, Cayey •Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Outline Brief Introduction (Li hi (Lithium ion i Rechargeable R h bl Batteries) B i )

Synthesis Method of cathode materials (I fl (Influence off Annealing A li Temp. T andd Annealing A li time, ti etc.) t )

Layered Li(NiM)O2 Cathode

(M= Co, Al, etc)

Results and discussions Summary

Lithium Manganese Spinel System Results and discussions Nano-crystalline cathodes Summary

Fuel Cells (SOFC)

Terminology : Li ion battery Capacity (C or Ah): Total amount of charge involved in the electrochemical reaction Specific capacity (Ah/kg): Capacity per unit mass.

•Theoretical Open Circuit voltage : Voltage with capacity of a material: Faraday’s 1stno lawload of electrochemistry: •1Theoretical Th ti l capacity 26 8 Ah/( 26.8 Ah/(gm equivalent i Ah l (96487 t wt) t) Coulombs). gram equivalent weightitof a: material will deliver 26.8 For LiMn2O4, the equivalent weight (M) is 180.8. Mol,

for LiMn2O4 (26.8/180.82) = 148 mAh/g giving theoretical capacity of

26.8  148mAh / g 180.8

• Measured capacity : (Current * time) /(active material) mAh/gram • ‘C’ rate : 1 C ~ 148 mA/g

Working principles of a typical Li ion rechargeable battery

Li(Ni,Co)O2

Li1-x(Ni,Co)O2 + xLi++xe-

The distinguishing features of today’s commercial Li-ion Li ion batteries are: High operating voltage: a single cell has an average operating potential of approx. 3.6 V Compact, lightweight, and high energy density (1.5 times and spec.energy is about twice Ni-Cd batteries

Fast charging potential : (80-90% of full capacity in one hour) High discharge rate: up to 3C are attainable Wide range of operating temperature: from –20 to + 60 oC Superior p cycle y life: service life of a batteryy exceds 500 cycle y Excellent safety Low self-discharge: only 8-12 % per month Long shelf shelf-life: life: no reconditioning diti i required i d up tto approx 5 years (Ni (Ni-Cd: Cd 3 month) th) No memory effect: can be recharged at any time Non-polluting: does not use toxic heavy metals such as Pb, Cd or Hg.

Cathode Materials Considerations 1.The transition metal ion should have a large work function (highly oxidizing) to maximize i i cellll voltage. lt 2. The cathode material should allow an insertion/extraction of a large amount of lithium to maximize the capacity. p y High cell capacity + high cell voltage = high energy density 3. The lithium insertion/extraction process should be reversible and should induce 3 little or no structural changes. This prolongs the lifetime of the electrode. 4. The cathode material should have good electronic and Li+ ionic conductivities. This enhances the speed with which the battery can be discharged. 5. The cathode should be chemically stable over the entire voltage range and not react with the electrolyte. electrolyte 6. The cathode material should be inexpensive, environmentally friendly and lightweight. Taken from A. Manthiram & J. Kim, Chem. Mater. 10, 2895-2909 (1998).

Materials for cathode • LiNiO2 • LiNi1-yCoyO2

Layered structures

• LiMnO LiM O2

3D structures

Comparison p of batteryy system y properties p p Pr. Cap. (mAh/g)

Density (g/cm3)

En. Dens. (mAh/cm3)

Shape of Discharge

Safety

Cost

Comment

LiCoO2

160

5.05

808

Flat

Fair

Hig h

Small--size LIB Small

LiNiO2

220

4.80

1056

Sloping

Poor

Fair

Very Difficult

LiMn2O4

148

4.20

462

Flat

Good

Low

HEV, EV

LiCo0.2Ni0.8O2

180

4.85

873

Sloping

Fair

Fair

LIP?Small Sca

LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2

160

4.70

752

Sloping

Good

Low

?

LiFePO4

160

3.70

592

Flat

Good

Low

Low Cond.

Material

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Statement of The Research Problem Is it possible to reduce the annealing temperature of the cathode materials ? How to improve the capacity fade of the cathode materials without sacrificing the specific capacity? Influence of different metal ion dopants on structural and electrochemical l h i l properties i off layered l d andd spinel i l cathodes h d materials. i l p for the capacity p y Understandingg of failure mechanism responsible loss in layered compounds.  Understanding the failure mechanis responsible for the capacity fade of nano-crystalline LMO using XPS analysis, XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

Method off Characterization Chem. solution process S lid state Solid t t process.

Powder structure

Study of cathode Properties STRUCTURE

ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES C-Voltametry

XRD

SEM

XPS

RAMAN Charge-Discharge Test

Layered Li(Ni,M)O2 Systems

Current status  LiCoO2 is still the only commercialized cathode material due to its excellent electrochemical properties.However, cobalt is relatively expensive and toxic and only 50% of the theoretical capacity of LiCoO2 could be practically utilized. LiNiO2 has been considered as a promising cathode material. It extremely difficult, however, to synthesize stoichiometric LiNiO2 due to the high-temperature preparation conditions that lead to the formation of Li1-xNi1+xO2.

Nickel (3a)

Lithium ((3b))

2 to Due to the difficult oxidation of Ni2+ Ni3+ and the volatility of the lithium compounds, nonstoichiometric oxides with 0.005 0.005

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